Friday, December 27, 2019

The Thousand Days War

The Thousand Days’ War was a Civil War fought in Colombia between the years of 1899 and 1902. The basic conflict behind the war was the conflict between liberals and conservatives, so it was an ideological war as opposed to a regional one, and it divided families and was fought all over the nation. After about 100,000 Colombians had died, both sides called a halt to the fighting. Background By 1899, Colombia had a long tradition of conflict between liberals and conservatives. The fundamental issues were these: the conservatives favored a strong central government, limited voting rights and strong links between church and state. The liberals, on the other hand, favored stronger regional governments, universal voting rights and a division between church and state. The two factions had been at odds since the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1831. Attack of the Liberals In 1898, conservative Manuel Antonio Sanclemente was elected president of Colombia. The liberals were outraged, because they believed that significant election fraud had taken place. Sanclemente, who was well into his eighties, had participated in a conservative overthrow of the government in 1861 and was extremely unpopular among liberals. Because of health problems, Sanclemente’s grip on power was not very firm, and liberal generals plotted a rebellion for October 1899. War Breaks Out The liberal revolt began in Santander Province. The first clash took place when liberal forces tried to take Bucaramanga in November 1899 but were repulsed. A month later, the liberals scored their largest victory of the war when General Rafael Uribe Uribe routed a larger conservative force at the battle of Peralonso. The victory at Peralonso gave the liberals the hope and strength to drag out the conflict for two more years against superior numbers. The Battle of Palonegro Foolishly refusing to press his advantage, liberal General Vargas Santos stalled long enough for the conservatives to recover and send an army after him. They clashed in May 1900 at Palonegro, in Santander Department. The battle was brutal. It lasted approximately two weeks, which meant that by the end decomposing bodies became a factor on both sides. Oppressive heat and lack of medical care made the battleground a living hell as the two armies fought time and again over the same stretch of trenches. When the smoke cleared, there were close to 4,000 dead and the liberal army had broken. Reinforcements Up until this point, the liberals had been getting aid from neighboring Venezuela. The government of Venezuelan President Cipriano Castro had been sending men and weapons to fight on the liberal side. The devastating loss at Palonegro made him halt all support for a time, although a visit from liberal General Rafael Uribe Uribe convinced him to resume sending aid. The End of the War After the rout at Palonegro, the defeat of the liberals was only a question of time. Their armies in tatters, they would rely for the rest of the war on guerrilla tactics. They did manage to secure some victories in present-day Panama, including a small-scale naval battle that saw the gunboat Padilla sink the Chilean ship (â€Å"borrowed† by the conservatives) Lautaro in the harbor of Panama City. These small victories notwithstanding, even reinforcements from Venezuela could not save the liberal cause. After the butchery at Peralonso and Palonegro, the people of Colombia had lost any desire to continue the fighting. Two Treaties Moderate liberals had been trying to bring about a peaceful end to the war for some time. Although their cause was lost, they refused to consider an unconditional surrender: they wanted liberal representation in government as a minimum price for ending hostilities. The conservatives knew how weak the liberal position was and remained firm in their demands. The Treaty of Neerlandia, signed on October 24, 1902, was basically a cease-fire agreement that included the disarming of all liberal forces. The war was formally ended on November 21, 1902, when a second treaty was signed on the deck of the US warship Wisconsin. Results of the War The Thousand Days’ War did nothing to alleviate the long-standing differences between the Liberals and Conservatives, who would again go to war in the 1940’s in the conflict known as La Violencia. Although nominally a conservative victory, there were no real winners, only losers. The losers were the people of Colombia, as thousands of lives were lost and the country was ravaged. As an extra insult, the chaos caused by the war allowed the United States to bring about the independence of Panama, and Colombia lost this valuable territory forever. One Hundred Years of Solitude The Thousand Days’ War is well-known inside of Colombia as an important historical event, but it has been brought to international attention due to an extraordinary novel. Nobel Prize Winner Gabriel Garcà ­a Mà ¡rquez’ 1967 masterpiece One Hundred Years of Solitude covers a century in the life of a fictional Colombian family. One of the most famous characters of this novel is Colonel Aureliano Buendà ­a, who leaves the tiny town of Macondo to fight for years in the Thousand Days’ War (for the record, he fought for the liberals and is thought to have been loosely based on Rafael Uribe Uribe).

Thursday, December 19, 2019

What Value Of The Project Itself Its Spillover Effects On...

Estimated Future State The â€Å"Spillovers† and â€Å"HKSAR valuation† tabs in the attached Excel workbook show how we calculated the value of the project itself, its spillover effects to the HK economy, and the overall net benefit to Hong Kong. We essentially did a traditional discounted cash flow analysis. We had to make assumptions and estimations of the future value of variables such as the HK inflation rate, tourist growth rate, etc. Based on historical data, analyst projections, and market research, these are our best estimates for what the future will hold for the HK economy and our project. To highlight some key calculations from this analysis, the NPV of the project, the NPV of the spillover effects, the NPV of the revenues that the HK†¦show more content†¦These park attendees have other purposes for being in Hong Kong other than visiting HK Disneyland. Due to limited discretionary income, they will spend some of the money that they would have spent in other sectors or at other businesses in the HK economy at HK Disneyland. This is a negative side effect for the economy. We estimated that the crowding out effect would be 10% of per capita spending at the park for local residents and 10% of per day spending for base tourists. In addition, we changed the HK population growth rate to 0%, the rate of inflation to -1% (1% deflation), the tourism growth rate to 3.3%, and the post-2024 cash flow growth rate to -2%. The 3.3% tourism growth rate is the rate recently projected by the Hong Kong Tourist Association for the 2005-2020 period. The 6.48% rate that we used for our best estimate was the historical rate. The 3.3% rate is a reflection of the fact that tourists have lost interest in Hong Kong since the British gave in back to China. Nonetheless, we think that HK Disneyland will result in at least average tourism growth for Hong Kong. Also, we believe that the park probably would shutdown in 2024 in the worst state. Because of this, we did not include ter minal cash flows. We believe the direction and magnitude of these changes in these variables will adequately simulate the worst possible future state of the economy for this project. To highlight some key calculations

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Business Model in the Business-Samples for Students-Myassignment

Question: Importance of Business Model in the Business. Answer: A business model has the nature of logistic which is able to provide data along with evidence that describes how a business would be able to generate and deliver values to the customers. It also form of costs, revenue and profits associated with the business so that value of customers can be delivered. There is a different element of business model to create value for customers and divert payment into profits (Richter, 2013). In core, a business model of the business comprises nothing less in comparison of architecture of organizational and financial of a business. business model cannot be compared with spread sheet or computer model, although business model may well lodged in the plan of business and the statements of the income and cash flow projections. But in a clearly manner, the concept of it refers in the phenomenon to a conceptual, in comparison of financial. Figure 1: elements of business model design Source: (Teece, 2010). Business model is important for every sector; there is no need to determine certain sector for applying it. A good business model is able to gain value proposition that are captivating to customers and able to obtain the structure of advantageous cost and risks. It is able to generate significant value capture through the business that make and delivers products and services. It is required to design the business in an appropriate manner after those implementing e-commercially viable architectures for revenues to the success for an organization. It is most important if business is created at first but along with that it is important for this business to keep the model viable (Cant, 2013). It is required for business to focus on effectiveness of excellent people because they would be able to generate the sustainability and profitability. It has been argued by Teece, (2010), the concept of business model is value creation, value appropriation and innovation. Value creation is most important element of the business model. Value creation consider as major aspect in the business to attain the profit from end user For example, Amazon is a multinational company that is able to provide better services and products to their customers, it sets 14 principles within an organization and whosoever would be unable to follow these principles will be get punished by monetary or non-monetary terms. These unnecessary principles are being the reason of lack of creation that is why Germany is the country that does not prefer a single product from Amazon. Value appropriation is considers in the business in the order to gain profit or margin of the company. Two model strategies, leading strategy and rear guard strategies are being used to describe the value appropriation in the business. Innovation is the part of success of the company; b usiness model innovation is a unique concept which supports business in the term of financial viability. It has been analyzed that there are number of successful business model in all over the world, for instance, Wal-Mart, Apple, Google, Toyota, and Zara and so on. These are the well developed companies that made changes in their business model to gain more reparative position in existing market. There are nine block of business model which defines the strategy without facing any complexity. Figure 2: Canvas of business model Source: (Baden-Fuller Morgan, 2010). Cant, (2013), stated that business model as an activity system work an s the design elements of content, structure and governance. It goes beyond independencies in among activities and notions of the structure of networks. It has three elements in it activity system as content, activity system as governance and activity system as structure. Activity system of business model refers to the selection of number of activities. For instance, Banclombia has initiated activities to design microcredit for those Colombians who do not have the access of banking services. To perform the activities, it is required to business to give proper training from the top management to employees. Activity system structure refers that the interlinked of activities in the business model. Activity system governance refers that will be liable to perform the activities in appropriate manner. Along with them business model as activity system can be categorized in to novelty, lock-in, complementarities and effici ency (Dentchev, et. al., 2016). Business model as cost revenue architecture can involve key partner, activities and different resources of business. The modes as cost revenue architect focus on variable and fixed economy. Customer segment and price contribution is being considered in this business model. It forces the business to earn more profit by controlling all unnecessary expenses and provide the business new opportunities to turn business into annuities (Schaltegger Wagner, 2011). These models will be able to resolve the issues of static and dynamic. Business model is able to have impact of reducing issues on the problems. Number of conceptualization component involves in business model which helps out business to get rid of static as well as dynamic issues (Zhang Wang, 2016). There are various components of conceptualization value stream, logistic stream, internal capability factors, economic growth, market factor, competitive advantage and revenue stream. Along with that there is a conceptualized components such as competitors, technological input, system architecture and network architecture, value proposition, value creating, competitors are elements which are able to design or re-design the business model for the purpose to analyze the issues regarding static and dynamic (Sanchez Ricart, 2010). A business model is able to articulate the data and the logic that support a value proposition not only for customers but also maintain a viable structure of revenues and costs. A good business model will be able to deliver the valuable services to value customers. A business context is considered as the tool which is taken is use for analyzing the environment of working within an organization (Boons Ldeke-Freund, 2013). The choices of business model define the architecture of the business. It can be difficult for the business s to make amendments in established business model. For example, American express and Discover card have experienced to change its hybrid models where they issued cards themselves. It was inappropriate for its competitors which provide only network services, as per technology innovation American express issued credit card. Innovative business model helps out to redesign the models and provide opportunity to generate higher returns to the pioneer until and unle ss their features of novels do not copied (Bharadwaj, El Sawy, Pavlou Venkatraman, 2013). It has been analyzed that there is number of business notions such as value creation, core business, customer, management and addressable market. There is a notion of open innovation which refers that companies relying on internal ideas to make its business advance. Open innovation is the part of notion which depends on the outsiders as the source of views and new ideas to commercialize them. Addressable market is focuses on market segments, face book is the example of it, when marks Zuckerberg launched its business, and he set to have the system of monopoly on customers response and commitment. It is the most important for the business to make changes in business without hurting anyone. Value creation is the example of saving time and efforts of the customers; it comes under the performance indicator of strategic. Inventory management is essential tool for the business for bringing changes in business model because it is important for the business to know about the demand of the cus tomers. Business need to replace the notions of expertise by learns ability and innovations (Breuer Ldeke-Freund, 2014). Figure 3: Steps to gain sustainable business model Source: (Teece, 2010). As per the evolution of the company, opportunities for generating revenue at large scale arise. Manager of the organization should take initiative step as per changes in business model. It has been evaluated that business model is connected with the innovation of technology. It will certainly have impact on the decisions of mangers while decision. There is an example of Google, Amazon and Easy jet which is able to demonstrate that how business get influenced because of changes in business model. Technological innovations definitely have influences on the performance of business in desired market (Itami Nishino, 2010). It has been concluded that business model has crucial role in innovation and sustainable business. Business models make ensure to the customers or investors that they are going to tie up with planned organization. In this report the bas of conceptual is thin, but it suggests the various ways to advance the study regarding model of business. Employing more accurate notions would permit other researchers to better understand about the importance of business model. E-business model archetypes, business model as activity system and business model as cost architecture has been elaborated in this report which will give better understanding for further research. References Baden-Fuller, C. Morgan, M.S. (2010). Business Models as Models . Long Range Planning 43 (2010) 156e171. Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O. A., Pavlou, P. A., Venkatraman, N. V. (2013). Digital business strategy: toward a next generation of insights. Boons, F., Ldeke-Freund, F. (2013). Business models for sustainable innovation: state-of-the-art and steps towards a research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, 45, 9-19. Breuer, H., Ldeke-Freund, F. (2014). Normative innovation for sustainable business models in value networks. Dentchev, N., Baumgartner, R., Dieleman, H., Jhannsdttir, L., Jonker, J., Nyberg, T., ... van Hoof, B. (2016). Embracing the variety of sustainable business models: social entrepreneurship, corporate intrapreneurship, creativity, innovation, and other approaches to sustainability challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production, 113. Itami, H., Nishino, K. (2010). Killing two birds with one stone: profit for now and learning for the future. Long Range Planning, 43(2), 364-369. Richter, M. (2013). Business model innovation for sustainable energy: German utilities and renewable energy. Energy Policy, 62, 1226-1237. Sanchez, P. Ricart, J. E. (2010). Business model Innovation and sources of value creation in low-income markets. European Management Review (2010) 7, 138-154. Schaltegger, S., Wagner, M. (2011). Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions. Business strategy and the environment, 20(4), 222-237. Seville, D., Buxton, A. Vorley, B. (2011). Under what conditions are value chains effective tools for pro-poor development?. Retrieved on 19th April 2017 from: Teece, D. J. (2010). Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation. Long Range Planning, vol 43 2010. Zhang, D., Wang, X. (2016). Investigating the dynamic spillover effects of low-cost airlines on airport airfare through spatio-temporal regression models. Networks and Spatial Economics, 16(3), 821-836.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Teacher Career Special Education Programming

Table of Contents Introduction Situation with Educational Institutions Services and Programs Reference List Introduction The formation of the concept of how the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) moves its efforts towards a goal is not one of the major issues to consider from the perspective of school districts. This act is aimed at proceeding toward a goal or through an activity which is not of primary importance concerning the current situation.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Teacher Career: Special Education Programming specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Educational management is an effort to make sure that special needs of children including obtaining the knowledge by means of learning and instruction are met. Education in the United States is mostly conducted by the public sector while the educational institutions are grouped into different sectors namely: public schools, approved home schools, and the private schools. Situation with Educational Institutions Educational institutions have different administrators and school boards that are elected to manage the education at the local level. These educational institutions are largely referred to as compulsory educational institutions, since they adhere to the education requirements and objectives of the United States educational system. Accordingly to the provision and supervision of the educational system by the public sector, it tends to control and fund tertiary institutions with fund received from the federal, state, and local resources. School curricula, employment of teachers, educational funding, and other educational policies are governed by locally elected school boards who have an authority over school districts. School districts are usually run by independent officials and budgets. However, administrators and teachers should maintain high-quality education by ensuring meaningful curriculum, effectiv e teaching, and necessary supports for each students (Hilliard, 1992, P.10). Educational programs, services, and budgets differ as well as school boards. All of these factors influence the programs school districts offer and the way they deal with children and parents and manage educational curricula. Depending on the population breakdown in the district, there may be many special education programs or only a few. Some administrators believe very firmly that most, if not all, children with disabilities should be mainstreamed in regular education. On the other hand, there are a number of professionals who believe that special programs are important and that children with disabilities, more often than not, should belong in special classes. Educational sector of the United States should be governed in accordance with the equal rights of citizens to acquire knowledge and be treated correspondingly to their physical or/and mental disability. Inherent in the nature of this is the acknowle dgment that the general public does not offer a smooth playing field for all children to start school at the same preliminary procession.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As reported by Tower (2007), a vague idea of the widespread approach to education is marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts with the policy objective of fairness where each person is provided with the learning opportunities, services, and support required to comprehend his/her prospective and reputable principles (p.100). Services and Programs Federal and state statutes for special education have endeavored to bring into balance the privileges of students to acquire knowledge in educational institutions. Special emphasis is given to those who have outstanding skills. However, some people are deprived of their opportunity to get a diploma in terms of their being unable to perform effectively. This problem is based on claims that these people are characterized by as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness, and a general educational system that has set an integrated course of academic studies, programs, and services. Mainstreaming, integration, and inclusion can be conceived of as emergent, dynamic, complex, and adapting concepts applied to special education problem (Ornstein and Lunenburg 1996, 268). Students are screened and referred for special education by means of determining their eligibility for special education whether the child has a particular category of disability. Schools develop an IEP specifying the student’s present levels of performance and how the child’s disability affects his or her involvement and progress in the general curriculum. Using this information, and following federal and state established procedural requirements, school district personnel attempt to match the students needs within the parameters of established special education programs, services, and resources (Cramer, 1996, P.56). Reference List Brown, G. personal communication, October 26, 2010. Casey, A. personal communication, October 26, 2010.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Teacher Career: Special Education Programming specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cramer, S. C., Ellis, W. (Eds.) (1996). Learning disabilities: Lifelong issues. Baltimore: Brokes. Hilliard, A. (1992). The pitfalls and promises of special education practice. Exceptional Children, 59(2), 168-172. Ornstein, A. C., Lunenburg, F. C. (2007). Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Tower, C. C. (2007). Exploring child welfare: a practice perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. This research paper on Teacher Career: Special Education Programming was written and submitted by user Tristen C. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

On Invisible Bullets Essay Example

On Invisible Bullets Paper An outline on Invisible Bullets As we analyze the essay, we realize that the writer discusses a material in each paragraph, and carefully relates it to the next paragraph. He supports his ideas with concrete examples related to the main topic sentence, which is the relation between orthodoxy and subversion in Harriot’s book. In the first paragraph, we have a motivator mixed with a background of the ideas he wants to discuss. In the next paragraph he wisely supports that background by giving different examples. In the third paragraph he emphasizes on some specific words such as â€Å"religion† which he uses several times through the essay. For each paragraph, we can find a topic sentence, and through the paragraph he brings arguments and supports and examples for that topic sentence, which in general, is itself supporting the main topic sentence and the main idea of the text. The paragraphs follow each other very smoothly and the essay grows in an evolutionary way. Each part is the result of the previous part. It’s quite a kind of classical text. We don’t have jumps and fragmentation. What attracts the reader’s attention is the use of quotation marks. Each time that he wants to use someone else’s words, he uses quotation marks, even if it contains only of one single word. We will write a custom essay sample on On Invisible Bullets specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on On Invisible Bullets specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on On Invisible Bullets specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The use of punctuation is also very eye catching. As we go through out the essay, we see that he makes the most benefit of each subject matter and each example and discusses them from all possible related points of view. So he is very good at supporting his idea. He gives us a fool complete satisfying argumentation. He had made benefit of every word or phrase written by Harriot which can be used in order to support his discussion. In the last three paragraphs he repeats his main ideas such as â€Å"the condition of power† and â€Å"continuity of subversion†; and even in the few last sentences, he doesn’t ignore the use of Harriot’s words and ideas.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

To What Extent, In Your Opinion, Is Shylock A Complete and Inhuman Villain Essay Example

To What Extent, In Your Opinion, Is Shylock A Complete and Inhuman Villain Essay Example To What Extent, In Your Opinion, Is Shylock A Complete and Inhuman Villain Essay To What Extent, In Your Opinion, Is Shylock A Complete and Inhuman Villain Essay Essay Topic: Opinion Play The way in which Shylock is played on stage has changed greatly since the play was first performed, when he was made out to be a villain and a clown. This altered in the nineteenth century when Shylock was portrayed as an intelligent man who had been victimised. Undoubtedly, Shakespeare did not write Shylock as a simple, one- sided part. To a modern audience, Shylock is sometimes a villain and sometimes a victim. However, in Shakespearian times, they would have had the much simpler view that Shylock was in the wrong and they (The Christians) were right. In Shakespearian England anti- Semitism was rife. Jews were widely regarded as evil and the entire community had been expelled from England in 1290. Jews were persecuted worldwide and forced to live their lives in ghettos. Audiences in the Elizabethan era who were predominately Christians would have delighted in Shylocks defeat, where as todays society is multicultural and diverse, hence we may have an entirely different view on this topic. Throughout the play we hear evidence that would justify Shylocks wickedness towards Christians, you call me misbeliever, cut- throat dog. Anyone who is called these names, spat upon and spurned is not going to behave in a polite way towards the source of rudeness. Depicted as a villain to many readers, Shylock shows his true feelings towards Antonio, aside to the audience, I hate him for he is a Christian. As well as proving his hatred of Christians, this does nothing for the sympathy towards him from the audience; A Shakespearian audience would immediately dislike Shylock. He also states that Antonio lends out money gratis. This shows that Shylocks reasons for hating Antonio are not only because he is a Christian and the way he treats Shylock and fellow Jews, but also the fact that he lends money to people without charging interest, hence which adversely affects Shylocks livelihood. This open display of greed and hatred makes Shylock even more an unsympathetic character. Furthermore, Shylocks hatred for Antonio can build up the dislike of himself to Christians, as they see Antonio as a fellow being. Shylock is portrayed as narrow- minded, a characteristic associated with archetypical villains. Shylock displays elements of belligerence in his refusal to forgive Christians. When Bassanio invites Shylock to dinner, he refuses at first, I will not eat with you, nor drink with you. This shows his stubborn belief in the prodigal Christian and also the strong divide between religions. Eventually he goes in hate. During the play, we learn of Shylocks intent in taking Antonios life, if I can catch him once upon the hip, I will feed fat that ancient grudge I bear him. This adds to the audiences dislike of him as well as attaining a reverence of a true villain, as the audience are under the belief that Shylock will go to great lengths to take Antonios life. Shylock is uncaring and rough as a father towards his only daughter. When we first witness an interaction between them, Shylock orders her about as if she were a servant, hear you me, Jessica, lock up my doors and mentions nothing about her well- being, only the well- being of the house, let not the sound of shallow foppery enter my sober house. These comments made by Shylock show how his relationship with his daughter is very weak, harsh and strict. The audience then shows sympathy for Jessica and in turn have an aversion to Shylock. Moreover, Shylock never notices his daughters strange behaviour on the night she is due to elope- showing that Shylock is not a very attentive father. Perhaps he is too preoccupied with generating yet more wealth to concern himself with his only daughter. This view of him as self- serving and avaricious is compounded by his reaction to Jessica running away with a Christian. He is outraged that she has left and has stolen some of his money, I would my daughter were dead at my foot. It seems like he cares more for the money than Jessica, because we hear, oh my ducats more than my daughter. Again Shylock portrays himself in an unsympathetic way, as vindictive and villainous. He wishes for the death of his own daughter as the price for her treachery and even goes as far as to wish she were hearsed at my foot and the ducats in her coffin. This shows Shylock to be a cold, heartless man, devoid of parental feeling, who is focused purely on revenge and money. Another example of Shylocks villainy is in the courtroom. Here, he has the chance to show that he is far superior to the Christians. If Shylock were to show mercy to Antonio, then he would come out of the proceedings very well indeed. However, he presses on ruthlessly with his attempt to kill Antonio which, when he fails turns the audience against him. He is described, even by the Duke as a stony adversary, an inhuman wretch. As various people beg him to show mercy he only replies coldly, I will have my bond. Even when Bassanio offers him six times the original fee, he still refuses, I would not draw them, I would have my bond. All this installs hatred of him in the courtroom, as he sits sharpening his knife stating that there is no power in the tongue of man to alter me. Conversely, Shylock could be seen as the victim in this play. It could be argued that he has suffered a lot of racial abuse, maybe more often than an average Jew in the Venetian society. Shylock has been called names such as evil soul and devil incarnation, which portrays dislike towards him, probably due to his money lending occupation. However is it right to torment some just because they are of a different religion? Shylock is preyed upon by many Christians, but it seems by Antonio, more than any. Indeed Antonio seems to be the source of much of Shylocks abuse. He has disgraced me, laughed at my losses, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains and heated mine enemies and his reason, I am a Jew. Antonio also shows that that he has no remorse for what he has said and done to Shylock, he openly states he would call thee so again, spit on thee again . Here we can see how Shylock can have extra vengeance for Antonio and how no-one could blame him for being angry at this deliberate racism. When they first meet in the play, Shylock says, many a time and oft in the Rialto you have rated me. This shows how readily Shylock accepts being abused and installs our sympathy in him. It also displays how much Shylock has endured from haters. During the play it becomes obvious that the mistreatment of Shylock comes from Christians, therefore it is understandable that he has a certain loathing for them. In Venice, if a Jew wrong a Christian the Christian will seek revenge. So it seems only fair that if a Christian wrong a Jew, then the Jew will take lead and, by Christian example seek revenge too. Shylock also states that, the villainy you teach me I will execute. This implies that Shylock is not the villain, but only acting as he is treated himself. In addition Antonio lends money to people with no added interest. This limits Shylocks business as people would rather go to Antonio than Shylock. This can affect the livelihood of Shylock and make us feel sorry for him. Another aspect of how Shylock is victimised is the fact that Antonio accepted the offer with a lawyer present and therefore understood the consequences in place if he could not repay the bond. He should have never signed it if he was not prepared to accept the forfeit. Antonios stubbornness caused himself to be in such a position. He wanted to gain the upper hand over Shylock when his ships return with thrice three times the value of this bond. However when all did not go to plan, Antonio was stuck in a very difficult position. By law Shylock had the power to fulfil the bond and kill Antonio. In Shylocks attempts to retrieve his debt by going to court, he is humiliated even more. He endures many more anti- Semitic comments; devil here he comes in the likeness of a Jew. Here it shows his dehumanisation even in court where there is to be justice. They call an outcast of society and criminals who have committed unthinkable acts, devils. Subsequently, this shows that Shylock walked into a courtroom full of biased Christians ready to tear him apart, because of his religion. This gives us the idea that they may not know Shylock, but because of his religion they are, at first glance, classing him an outcast. The Christians also seek to torment Shylock even when he is most vulnerable, such as when Jessica elopes with Lorenzo. Christians invite Shylock out to dinner the night his daughter is stolen from him, so this betrays his trust in them even further. When he speaks to Salerio he mocks him about the disappearance of his daughter, thats certain: I, for my part, knew the tailor that made the wings she flew withal. This proves how much Shylock is mocked in his life, even after the people closest to him have deserted him. He was a protective father and just wants the best for Jessica. When the carnival is going on outside he wants to keep Jessica away from the Christians, clamber not you up to the casements then, nor thrust your head into the public street. He quite rightly says this considering the way he is treated by Christians. He loves his daughter and does not want her to get hurt. In addition, the fact that Jessica stole some of his money and valuable Jews makes us feel sorry for Shylock even more. All his life he has worked hard to earn his money and it has been snatched away from him. We also learn that Jessica has stolen and then given away the ring of Shylocks wife for a monkey. Shylock cries out and says, I would not have given it for a wilderness of monkeys. This shows how mush Jessica has hurt him and we are deeply sympathetic. Shylock is nai ve in the way that he believes he can take on the Christians when the foundation of Venetian law is designed to serve the best interests of the Christians. Shylocks punishment is harsh- he has to give up all of his wealth to his enemies and become a Christian, he is left with nothing. Here we see Shylock, an utterly broken man and our heart goes out to him. Then, at the end of the play, in the last act, we learn that everyone is happy, everyone apart from Shylock, who does not feature. This leaves us speculating what happened to him and we feel for him, wondering what he is doing while everyone else is happy and peaceful. Stereotypically, it seems that the villain is punished and the treat is over. However, although Shylock pursues his revenge fervently, he still has the audiences sympathy because of the unfair and callous punishment he receives. It strikes a modern day audience as unjust that the severity of his punishment reflects not his crime, but his race. He is a victim of the Christians intolerance of other races and ideas. In all, I believe that Shylock is merely a victim in this story. He has the right to have vengeance for all he has suffered and to act as the Christians act towards him. He has been humiliated in a racist society where the Christians have no conscience in dehumanising and destroying a Jew. Furthermore, his only daughter runs away with one of his persecutors. She steals his money and the ring his wife gave him. It seems justified that he should feel betrayed and hurt. Shylock only demanded a bond that Antonio had accepted to. It could be argued that if Antonio was not willing to die, then why did he consent to Shylocks contract in the first place. We can only guess at how Shakespeare intended Shylock to be played. He becomes throughout the play, an increasingly lone figure and is portrayed by Shakespeare to be in some ways very human. Shakespeare could have decided to show Shylock completely defeated at the end of the play, not even to have his religion to hold on to, which would indicate that he was intended to be a villain. On the other hand, I think Shylock was intended to be a victim and was created to challenge the pre- conceptions and ideologies of the Elizabethan era. Also I think that he is not a villain because he inspires too much empathy in an audience. Having said all this, I believe that it is no useful for us to simply categorise Shylock as either victim or villain. Through Shylock, Shakespeare explores the way in which the line between the oppressed and the oppressor can become vague.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Research Proposal on the Influence of Gender and Age on Cyber Bulling

On the Influence of Gender and Age on Cyber Bulling - Research Proposal Example However, with the advancements in information technology have arisen insecurity issues. Insecurity issues have in turn sparked far reaching implications to the users. In particularly, insecurity issues in information technology have been closely associated with internet usability. This comes when the usefulness of internet cannot be presently overemphasized. It is for this reason that information technology and security issues become critical. Important, though, have been the concerns on how to address these forms of insecurity. Background of the Problem The aspect on information technology that is paramount to this discussion is cyber bullying and how whether or not it is affected by age or gender. According to Hopeline (2011), cyber bullying has emerged to be the newest platform on which the youths are increasingly abusing each other. The more concerning issue is that there are currently no appropriate techniques that intervene for cyber bullying despite large numbers of kids who a ccess the information technologies. Internet and cell phone communications have been cited as tools for Cyber bullying. According to Hopline, what appalls even more is that Cyber bullying occurs during kids’ class time. Hopline cites that cyber bullying has far reaching implications on kids, so that the victims (kids) of cyber bullying only feel safe when in their bedrooms. This clearly shows that it does not under all circumstances hold that cyber bullying causes physical harm. However, cyber bullying is mostly associated with causation of harmful emotional fallout which may cumulate to other far reaching consequences. It is factual that kids are major victims of cyber bullying. It is also true that cyber... This essay says that the researcher has set out research questions in an attempt to identifying specific considerations to make in order to achieve the purposes outlined above. The research questions are said to have very close relation with the purpose of the study in the sense that the research questions are going to be tackled during research work. Successful completion of this research work will come with a lot of significance to a lot of people, especially primary and secondary students. This report shall be conventional to the guidelines of the Ethics of a University. Before starting the process of handling the questionnaires to the children, letters shall be sent to parents and to head-teachers, describing the nature of the study. These letters will serve the purpose of informing them about the content of the questionnaire. The main aim additionally, shall be to confirm about the confidentiality of the study. In this respect, parents shall sign the parental consent forms as an approval for their children to participate in the study. In this regard, they shall have one week deadline to send them back to the researcher. It shall also be required that teachers and head-teachers approve the study. This, therefore, necessitated that this researcher inform them about the study, the collection of data, and the process to be followed and about the privacy of the questionnaires. It is also worth noting that teachers will be informed that they will be present during the proc ess of the survey and if they have any objection that need be discussed with the researcher.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Managed Health Care Delivery with Healthcare Reform Act Essay

Managed Health Care Delivery with Healthcare Reform Act - Essay Example These legislative developments will no doubt bring about tremendous changes in the managed care sector impact immensely on the system of care delivery. Studying managed healthcare relative to the Health Care Reform Act is therefore a very important topic affecting healthcare professionals, care providers, medical students, policy makers and other stakeholders. The Act will particularly have far reaching impacts on models of business for insurance providers and the Managed HealthCare Sector. Insurers and self funded care plans for instance are required to overhaul some practices of underwriting as well as structures of benefit. The act will therefore see insurers receive more customers since most Americans are expected to acquire covers or attract penal measures. Ultimately premium rates expected to hike as insurers struggle with costs of registering new clients some with very high costs of medication. Another area of concern to the Health Care Reform Act has to do with compensation for physicians especially given the amount and nature of work given the changes that will be occasioned by the reforms. The future of managed healthcare is thus going to be marred with a myriad of changes all in the best interest of the patient in America. It is important for these reasons that I believe this is as very relevant and timely topic for students in the entire medical field. In this article, the author reflects on physician compensation, cost and quality in the U.S. He also explains three ways to reimburse physicians for services rendered; the ways are salary, capitation, or fee for service. Physicians reimbursed on the basis of salary receive a certain sum at the end of every month or year worked. Those on capitation schedule receive their payments commensurate with the number of patients attended to or the number of patients placed under their responsibility. On the other hand, professionals compensated based on fee-for-service receive payment for

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Speech Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 11

Speech - Essay Example The avialability of a male figure in the family is important for the complete development of the children. In a family, the father offers a sense of security to both the children and a mother (Rosenberg & Wilcox, 2006). He assumes the responsibility of assuring everyone in the family that no matter what everything will be okay. According to a report by Children’s Bureau, emphasize fathers provide a sense of physical and economic security that helps in healthy development of the children. He gives a sense of peace to the mother who knows she has someone she can rely on to love and protect her (Vacca, 2013). According to research, families without fathers are likely to suffer economically compared to families with fathers. It implies fathers are important for the economic status of families. In addition, fathers are key factors in the cognitive development of their children. I am certain that those who had a chance to be taught how to read, write or ride a bike by their dads still remember those moments with nostalgia (Strauss, 2014). The presence of a caring father will always be a source of immense of happiness and peace of mind for the whole family. In conclusion, fathers are critical to family stability and healthy development of children. Fathers offer the basic sense of security to the mother and children. They are the male figures for developing children. The presence of fathers at the home is a necessity that we cannot afford to overlook. Vacca, J. J. (2013). The Parenting Process from the Fathers Perspective: Analysis of Perceptions of Fathers about Raising Their Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Best Practice in Mental Health, 9(2),

Friday, November 15, 2019

Genes Encoding HLA Antigens

Genes Encoding HLA Antigens The genes encoding HLA antigens are clustered on chromosome 6p21 at the telomeric end of the HLA region. Relatively few HLA class I genes are transcribed or translated.The expressed class I genes are subdivided into class Ia, which includesHLA-A, -B,and -C, and class Ib, which includes HLA-E, -F, and -G. As a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, HLA-G is expressed predominantly and restrictedly in extravillous trophoblast cells at maternal–fetal interface. Alternative transcription of spliced HLA-G mRNAs encodes at least seven different HLA-G iso- forms, namely the membrane-bound HLA- G1, -G2, -G3 and -G4, and the soluble HLA-G5 and -G6 and –G7 proteins (1, 2). Experiments in vitro showed that HLA-G may contribute to maternal acceptance of the semi-allogenic fetus, by suppressing the maternal immune system has been shown to bind to the immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)-2 and killer inhibitory receptor (KIR)2DL4 (p49) inhibitory r eceptors on NK cells and confer protection to extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) via these receptors (3)(Figure2). This suggests that the interaction between HLA-G and immunocompetent cells at the placental interface could be critical in determining the outcome of pregnancy. In this regard, it may be helpful to look for deviations in these interactions by studying early pregnancy disorders of unknown aetiology (4). Among its several limited polymorphisms, the 14-bp ins/del polymorphism at 3 ´ untranslated region (3 ´UTR) of HLA-G gene has been shown an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G molecule(5). Reports indicated that 14-bp polymorphism is associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and isoform alternative splicing patterns, therefore may influence functionality of HLA-G in pregnancy (6). In the present study, we analysed the 14-bp insertion ⠁„ deletion polymorphism in normal pregnancy and recurrent miscarriage patients with different miscarriage frequencies and discovered a possible correlation between the 14-bp polymorphism and recurrent miscarriage. Material and methods We carried out a case–control study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from iranian women who had been seen at the infertility center in Yazd city during 2013 to 2014 for the evaluations of recurrent miscarriage. All of these women had regular menstrual cycles and were health. We analyzed a total of 200 patients with three or more recurrent spontaneous abortions (as a case group) and 200 healthy women without any history of abortion (as a control group). During the entire investigation period the current laws of ethical committee were followed; the patients gave their informed consent for use of their blood collected. Studied patients were without anatomical, microbial, viral, genetical disease and hormone profile tests and tests for ovulation and tubal patency were normal. Male partner’s semen analysis were included in the study. According to medical evidences, etiology of these abortions are unexplained. The following data for the patients were obtained: age, age at each abortion, numbers of abortions, time of abortion during each pregnancy, familial history of abortion, occurrence of bleeding and pain during abortion. Genotyping of the 14-bp insertion ⠁„ deletion polymorphism The blood samples of the control group and of the patients were collected in tubes containing EDTA. The molecular analyses were performed using DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes with a routine salting out procedure. The 14-bp insertion ⠁„ deletion polymorphism was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplification was done using the forward primer 5 ´-GTGATGGGCTGTTTAAAGTGTCACC-3 ´ and the reverse primer 5 ´-GGAAGGAATGCAGTTCAGCATGA-3 ´ for the HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism analysis. PCR products were run on 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The sizes of the PCR products were confirmed by sequence analysis. The PCR products of exon 8 were analysed by 10% nondenaturing poyacrylamidel gel electrophoresis containing ethidium bromide and visualized under ultraviolet light. PCR products were of either 224 or 210 bp, respectively,depending on the insertion/deletion of the 14 bp in exon 8. The cycling conditions used were: 94  °C for 5 min; 35 cycles of 94  °C for 1 min, 55  °C for 1 min, 72  °C for 30 s; and a final cycle extension at 72  °C for 5 min. Statistical analysis The data were analyzed by using the Chi-square test in the presence and absence of 14-bp insertion ⠁„ deletion polymorphism expressing individuals. Odds ratio was calculated with a confidence interval of 95 %. The data were processed by SPSS 16 software. The significance level of the tests for considering Pvalues as significant was set to Results HLA-G genotype frequencies were in agreement with a Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in this study. Depending on the 14-bp deletion homozygotes, 14-bp insertion homozygotes or +14-bp ⠁„-14- bp heterozygotes of exon-8, the size of the amplified PCR products was either 224 or 210 bp or both in the case of heterozygotes (Figure 1) and was confirmed by DNA sequencing (Figure 2). Our results showed that both the +14-bp ⠁„-14- bp and -14-bp ⠁„-14-bp genotype frequencies were not significantly different between patients with recurrent miscarriages and fertile controls. However, the genotype frequency of +14-bp ⠁„ +14-bp homozygotes was significantly increased in those with recurrent abortions (three or more abortions) as compared with normal fertile controls. The mean age in the case group was: 35.3 yr  ± 5.8 (range 19–43), the mean age in the control group was: 34.9 yr  ± 3.2, (range 20–41) (Pvalue =0.40), in addition, some features of patients shown in Table 1. Distribution of the genotypes in the RSA patient and control groups is shown in Table 2. Frequencies were consistent with those previously reported by other investigators. (p value =) Discussion For more than two decades, the non-classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule HLA-G has been supposed to be an important immunoloregulation molecule in the maintenance of foetal–maternal immunotolerance. HLA-G has the ability to inhibite immune cell functions like natural killer cells, cytotoxic T cells and dentritic cells. In our study, we focused on the 14-bp deletion ⠁„ insertion polymorphism in the 3 ´ UTR of exon 8 of the HLA-G gene,which may contribute to the regulation of HLA-G expression. Our results showed that there were more women who were heterozygous in RSA group than in the fertile controls. Also the frequency of the +14-bp variant showed a significant increase in patients with three or more miscarriages. Thus, our data suggest that there is a detectable relationship between susceptibility to recurrent miscarriages and +14-bp homozygotes of the HLA-G locus.A report by Hviid et al. showed a significant over representation of the 14-bp +⠁„ + 14-bp HLA-G genotype in a recurrent miscarriage group. Although no significant difference was observed for the 14-bp +⠁„+14-bp genotype between the recurrent miscarriage and the control groups in their study, the same trend was found by Yan et al. Their hypothesis was that the frequencies of the HLA-G genotype, homozygous for the + 14-bp sequence, would be higher in women with several unsuccessful IVF treatments or with recurrent miscarriage than in control groups. This hypothesis was based on a previously published study. HLA-G alleles may result in different levels of HLA- G proteins. To date, the 14-bp deletion has been assigned to the G*010101, G*0102 and G*010401 alleles, and the 14-bp insertion to the G*010102, G*010103, G*0103, G*0105N and G*0106 alleles. Rebmann et al. reported that alleles G*01013 and G*0105N with the +14-bp sequence are known as ‘lowsecretor’ alleles, and are associated with reduced soluble HLA-G levels . Thus, The 14-bp insertion in ex on 8 of the HLA-G gene may be associated with low levels of plasma soluble HLA-G. Low concentrations of soluble HLA-G in maternal serum appear to be correlated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in IVF pregnancies .If the HLA-G ‘low-secretor’ allele is a factor involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent miscarriage, one would expect an increase in the number of carriers with the number of recurrent miscarriages , which is in agreement with the results of this study. The HLA-G 14 bp insertion ⠁„ deletion polymorphism may, in turn, affect the serum levels of sHLA-G and pregnancy maintenance, although the exactm mechanisms will require further study. The reason may be explained as follows, serum secreted HLA-G is conductive to early embryo implantation, as insufficient serum sHLA-G pro- motes trophoblasts attack by the mother’s immune cells induced by early embryonic trophoblast invasion of spiral arteries. This can result in a loss of implantation andpregnancy mai ntenance, leading to embryo loss as unexplained recurrent miscarriage .Based on these observations, our data indicate that the difference in HLA-G 14-bp genotype frequencies is not highly significant in this study. Probably, HLA-G as a single factor has a very modest effect in relation to risk for recurrent miscarriage. However, more genotyping investigations and functional studies on immune regulation are essential to elucidate the role of HLA-G in pregnancy. HLA-G gene encodes four membrane-bound and three soluble HLA-G isoforms by alternative splicing (16). The 14- bp insertion/deletion polymorphismin exon 8 of the HLA-G gene has been reported to be associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and splicing patterns, thus may play a role in the context of HLA-G functionality during pregnancy (17). Few studies on 14-bp polymorphism have been carried out in the association with RSA to date. A study by Tripathi et al. (14) indicated that 14-bp polymorphism is not a susceptible risk factor fo r RSA, but the number of heterozygotes (14bp1/2) was increased in the RSA group. However, another study indicated that homozygosity for the presence of the 14-bp polymorphism was higher in women with RSA than in the control groups (13). Recently, a report by Hviid et al. (15) showed a significant over- representation of 14bp 1/1 HLA-G genotype in the RSA group. Although no significant difference was observed for the 14bp 1/1 genotype between the RSA and the control groups in the current study, the same trend was found. In regard to the frequency of 14bp 1/2 heterozygotes, our study is inconsistent with that by Tripathi et al. (14) where more number of heterozygotes was observed in the RSA group. The discrepancy may be the result of ethnic variations, for a significantly different distribution of the 14-bp genotype was observed among Chinese, Danish, and Indian populations (Table 2) (14, 15). The 14-bp polymorphisms are involved in the stability and splicing patterns of the HLA-G mRN A isoforms. A rather detailed study by Hviid et al. (10) addressed that the HLA-G isoform transcripts were at a significantly lower level than the corresponding HLA-G isoform mRNA with the 14-bp sequence deleted, and an additional alternative splicing pattern, especially the HLA-G2 mRNA, could be observed with the presence of the 14-bp sequence. In accordance with this, a study by Rebmann et al. reported that HLA-G allelic variants are associated with plasma-soluble HLA-G levels. Alleles G*01013 and G*0105N with the 14-bp sequence are known as ‘low-secretor’ alleles, whereas alleles without the 14-bpsequence such as G*01041 are known as ‘high-secretor’ alleles, which are associated with elevated soluble HLA-G levels (18).Therefore, particular HLA-G alleles may result in different levels of HLA-G proteins. In the current study, higher frequencies of the 14-bpinsertion allele in RSA group may be a reflection of the association between the 14-bp insertion and the altered balance in HLA-G mRNA isoforms and probably the protein concentration. A recent report by Yie et al. (19) addressed that the embryos that express HLA-G benefit a higher in vitro fertilization rate. To the contrary, low soluble HLA-G seems to be correlated with an adverse pregnancy outcome (20). Taken together, our data indicated that the 14-bp insertion allele might have importance in the outcome of pregnancy. However, more genotyping investigations and functional studies on immune regulation are essential to elucidate the role of HLA-G in pregnancy.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Othello First Impression Essay Essay

Our first impression of Othello comes from a conversation between Iago, Roderigo, and Brabantio. Our second impression of him comes from Othello himself. The first two impressions conflict greatly, the second being more accurate than the first. Despite the way Othello is described in the first scene, he shows himself to be quite different in the second. Our first impression of Othello comes from a conversation between Iago, Roderigo, and Brabantio. Iago speaks of Othello with contempt. From the very first scene, he seems to be a hated character. Without even mentioning Othello’s name, the three men paint a picture of him as a scheming criminal who has stolen and raped Brabantio’s daughter. In calling Othello names like â€Å"an old black ram† (1.1.97), â€Å"the devil† (1.1.100), and â€Å"a Barbary horse† (1.1.125), Iago depicts Othello as evil and dirty. Brabantio announces that he would rather that Desdemona was with Roderigo than the Moor, when he says, â€Å"O, would you had had her!† (1.1.198). From this first scene, the audience gets a very negative impression of Othello–one that differs greatly from the second impression. In the second scene, when we actually meet Othello, we see that he is not at all like how he was portrayed in the first scene. He is an honorable and honest man. When Iago tries to warn him of Brabantio’s anger, he refuses to go into hiding, saying, â€Å"Let him do his spite. My services which I have done†¦ shall out-tongue his complaints†¦ I must be found. My parts, my title, and my perfect soul shall manifest me rightly† (1.2.20-37). Othello is confident in his actions and refuses to run away like a coward, having done nothing wrong. Then, when Othello’s men meet up with Brabantio’s men, Othello’s wise words prevent a bloody conflict. He says â€Å"you shall more command with years than with your weapons†¦Hold your hands†¦Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it without a prompter† (1.2.78-104). Obviously, from Othello’s smart words and logical actions, he is not the man that Iago, Roderigo and Brabantio m ade him seem to be. In conclusion, our first impression of Othello is inaccurate and inconsistent  with our second impression, which actually comes from Othello himself. The first time we meet Othello, we learn that the description of him, in the first scene, was biased, racist, and incorrect. All in all, our second impression of Othello is much more true to his actual character.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Ethics of Consumption Essay

Once you have read the textbook chapter and the Reading, answer discussion questions 1, 3- 5 (ignore questions 2 and 6). Q1. Who is the â€Å"we† in the question â€Å"Why do we consume so much?† Is Juliet Schor correct that â€Å"there is increasingly little that we do which is not a consumption experience† And that we have become a culture of excessive consumption? Explain your answers. The â€Å"we† in the question â€Å"why do we consume so much?† is stands for the majority of Americans those whose basic needs are met, who have discretionary income, the large middle classes whose standard of living has risen so dramatically over this century. Juliet Schor is correct that â€Å"there is increasingly little that we do which is not a consumption experience†. For example, the average American home has increased by more than 50% since 1970s and the number of vehicles per person has increased. And we have become a culture of excessive consumption due to $20,000 outdoor grills, $17,000 birthday parties for teen girls FAO Schwartz, diamond studded bras at Victoria Secrets, professional appliances for people not home to cook, designer clothes for 6 year olds as well as $1000 bed sheets. Q3. Explain why Schor believes that â€Å"more leisured. Less consumerist lifestyles are structurally blocked†. Why can’t people simply choose to work less and enjoy more free time? Do you agree that working long hours encourages people to consume more? Schor believes that â€Å"more leisure, less consumerist lifestyles is structurally blocked† because we are undermining our quality of life, we fail to take enough leisure, and live excessively busy and stressful lives. People cannot simply choose to work less and enjoy more free time because the employers set work norms and schedules, and those are tied to jobs. A full-time worker is paid per person, not per hour, and the employers prefer to hire fewer people, as well as employees who work longer hours are more financially dependent on the firm. Also, the income that people earned determines the level of consumption. The more they earned, the more or luxury goods they are able to purchase. I do not agree that working long hours encourages people to consume more. I have some working experiences before. After working for the whole day, I felt very tired and I thought money does not come easily, so I would not buy as much as I earned. I would like to save it and buy wait until I think the price of the good I want to buy is acceptable and it is useful. Q4. Schor refers to the second structural feature that creates too much consumption as â€Å"the ecological bias†. What does she mean by this? Do you agree with her that it is serious? Schor means that people overuse of the ecological resources of the earth, which account for global warming, species extinction, ecosystem depletion, water shortages, deforestation and soil erosion. I absolutely agree with her that overuse of natural capital is serious because the rate of resource use, pollution, and ecological degradation exceeds earth’s absorptive and regenerative capacities. We are already beyond a sustainable relation with earth. If rest of the world lived like the Americans do, need an additional four planets to support this lifestyle. Q5. Explain why you agree or disagree with Schor’s contention that consumption has become a social competition. How has the old concept of â€Å"keeping up with the Joneses† changed? Do you agree that it is difficult for individuals to resist or drop out of the consumption competition? Explain why or why not. Yes, I agree with Schor’s contention that consumption has become a social competition because more and more people buy luxury goods to show off, which  it stand for recognition, esteem, status, and even envy it confers. Especially young teenagers, they like to keep up with their classmates or schoolmates. As a result, branded goods were carried by students is obviously around the school. The old concept of â€Å"keeping up with the Joneses† has changed because Americans’ consumer aspirations now has become more vertical, which is in terms of economic and social standing. Young Americans regarded Rockefeller or Bill Gates who makes $100,000 a year or more as an important aspirational target. They are more squint towards a decent or comfortable standard of living. I agree that it is difficult for individuals to resist or drop out the consumption competition. Since everyone is using the latest products, we have to elevate ourselves as well. If we refused to upgrade our belonging, we will fall behind the others, it may account for inconvenience in our life. For example, nowadays, some homework has to type it out or submit online, if we do not have a laptop at home, then it will be troublesome and inconvenience. Thus, individuals are getting more and more difficult to drop put the consumption competition.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Hurricane Katrinas Impact

Hurricane Katrinas Impact Free Online Research Papers On August 29, 2005, one of the strongest hurricanes to impact the coast of the United States made landfall hitting southern Florida as a category 1. By August 29th, Hurricane Katrina reached the Gulf Coast smashing and destroying the city of New Orleans as a category 4. Many living in the city fled prior to the storm, but many believed the reminiscences of the storm wouldn’t be as bad as they thought and they stayed. As a result of New Orleans being below sea level, levees were placed around the city to keep the streets and homes from flooding. When the intensity of winds and mass flooding came from the storm, these levees broke, flooding nearly 80% of New Orleans leaving people homeless, jobless, and even some lifeless ( Caruso). Hurricane Katrina left a devastating impact on the city of New Orleans. On August 27th, prior to Hurricane Katrina’s landfall, New Orleans’ Mayor Ray Nagin expressed his deep concern for the city and asked the people living there to evacuate voluntarily. Many began boarding up their homes and preparing to evacuate the city, but many people remained believing they could survive the hurricane’s temper. By mid-afternoon on the 27th, Mayor Nagin made the evacuation mandatory. For those who didn’t have money or waited too long to leave, a â€Å"refuge of last resort† was designed at the Louisiana Superdome. â€Å"When Hurricane Katrina came ashore on the 29th, approximately one million people had fled the city† (Wikipedia). When Katrina made landfall, the storm dumped treacherous amounts of rain causing the levees around the city to break. The water behind these levees flooded the city leaving some places under 20 feet of water. As the storm pressed on, the flood waters continued to rise causing the streets to look more like rivers, and swept victims and their cars off into the depths. The worst hit area involved the levees at the Industrial Canal. The Lower Ninth, a huge residential area, was completely swamped leaving survivors homeless and claiming many lives of those who couldn’t make it out in time (Wikipedia). Some of the life claiming and changing devastations from the hurricane were not only from flooding, but also dehydration from a lack of good water, infection, and even depression. Depression stemmed from loss of loved ones, loss of homes, and possessions that displaced over one million residents of the gulf states, mostly Louisiana. New Orleans, which was eighty percent under water, lost close to 180 thousand houses from the severity of the flooding (Climate). Many had their temporary displacement, in the safe haven better known as the New Orleans Super Dome, extended by having to move from their home town (Wikipedia). Although some people were fortunate to still have their home somewhat intact, they lacked the source of power and water to enhance the time to remodel it in a timely manner. New Orleans was in a state of disaster. Everybody once living in the city was either deceased, abandoned from their home, or evacuated not knowing if they could ever call New Orleans their à ¢â‚¬Å"home† ever again. On August 29th, 2005, many people living in New Orleans lost everything to one of the greatest disasters to ever hit America, Hurricane Katrina. The near two thousand lives that were lost, the million plus that were displaced, and delayed federal aid for the people of New Orleans left this proud colorful culture in shambles. The devastation rendering a prominent U.S. city seem like a war torn third world country unrecognizable as suitable living and working space for its citizens; this may well be the worst natural disaster in the young history of the United States. Caruso, Kevin. â€Å"Hurricane Katrina 2005.† 21 Jan. 2008 â€Å"Climate of 2005 Summary of Hurricane Katrina.† National Climatic Data Center. 29 Dec. 2005. 21 Jan. 2008 â€Å"Effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans.† Wikipedia. Apr. 2007. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. 21 Jan. 2008 Research Papers on Hurricane Katrina’s ImpactHip-Hop is ArtCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite Religion19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationThe Spring and AutumnNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceQuebec and CanadaCapital PunishmentEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Free Essays on Glass Ceiling

One of the hardest and most frustrating issues being faced by groups or certain individuals in the corporate world today is the vast difference in gender treatment. This is commonly known as the â€Å"glass ceiling†, which is defined by Buzzanell as the â€Å"focus on women’s historic under representation in powerful organizational positions and the culmination point at which time women recognize the discriminatory practices, gender stereotypes, and individual biases that have hindered their advancement . The glass ceiling functions as a barrier to women (and minorities) as a group rather than to individual women. There appears to be no industry type without glass ceilings, no other similar form of structural plateauing, and no comparable barrier for white males. This blockage occurs in governmental, scientific, business, and educational organizations.† There are steps being made to try to change corporate cultures so that both males and females have equal opportunities, but as we learned, changes such as this take time, and in this case it is said that it could take up to a hundred years before women are receiving the same pay per dollar as men, given the same opportunities as men, and are looked at as being equal in ability to get the job done. Cultures develop over time and are historical, which we talked about in class. They are based on what has happened in the past and on the upbringing of those that shape the culture. If you see things in old ways, it’s difficult to act in new ways. This is what seems to be happening in the corporate world, because women are having such a hard time breaking into the male dominated culture of corporations that has been implemented all through history up until recently. It is encouraging to see that there is progress being made, but it is at somewhat of a slower rate than women hope for. In a study done by the PRWeek Magazine, a salary survey in March of 2000 said that women â€Å"wer... Free Essays on Glass Ceiling Free Essays on Glass Ceiling Business Week: Mexico: Strides and Setbacks for Woman The article begins by discussing some statistics in Mexico. Mexico is the world’s 13th largest economy and is ranked 48th in terms of gender development This is way below the average of highly industrialized countries. 25 years ago, only one of five Mexican women worked outside the home, compared to one of three today. The article discusses how today a woman governs Mexico City and another presides over the country’s strongest leftist opposition force, while the Senate is presided over by a woman, and two of the members of the cabinet of ministers are women. Women hold 17 percent of seats in the lower house of Congress and 15 percent of seats in the Senate. 14 percent of businesses are In 1994 Mexico linked up with Canada and the United States in the North American Free Trade Agreement. Since then, there have been many protests from sectors complaining trade between countries with such enormous differences has hurt them. According to the article women have been hit the hardest. NAFTA had opened up job opportunity but for low skilled jobs with poor conditions. The new market conditions have led women textile workers to be replaced by men and this has pushed many women into the â€Å"informal economy, where they have no social security or benefits.† (UNIFEM) When it comes to working at the same jobs as men women make 40 percent less than men. This article intrigued an interesting comparison of Mexico’s strive for women to move up in the work force and The United States current glass ceiling. The glass ceiling is the invisible barrier that women have to move up the corporate latter. The glass ceiling theory first drew serious attention in 1991, when the glass ceiling commission was established as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. A study released that year by then Secretary of Labor Lynn Martin found that a glass ceiling does indeed exist, limiting the op... Free Essays on Glass Ceiling One of the hardest and most frustrating issues being faced by groups or certain individuals in the corporate world today is the vast difference in gender treatment. This is commonly known as the â€Å"glass ceiling†, which is defined by Buzzanell as the â€Å"focus on women’s historic under representation in powerful organizational positions and the culmination point at which time women recognize the discriminatory practices, gender stereotypes, and individual biases that have hindered their advancement . The glass ceiling functions as a barrier to women (and minorities) as a group rather than to individual women. There appears to be no industry type without glass ceilings, no other similar form of structural plateauing, and no comparable barrier for white males. This blockage occurs in governmental, scientific, business, and educational organizations.† There are steps being made to try to change corporate cultures so that both males and females have equal opportunities, but as we learned, changes such as this take time, and in this case it is said that it could take up to a hundred years before women are receiving the same pay per dollar as men, given the same opportunities as men, and are looked at as being equal in ability to get the job done. Cultures develop over time and are historical, which we talked about in class. They are based on what has happened in the past and on the upbringing of those that shape the culture. If you see things in old ways, it’s difficult to act in new ways. This is what seems to be happening in the corporate world, because women are having such a hard time breaking into the male dominated culture of corporations that has been implemented all through history up until recently. It is encouraging to see that there is progress being made, but it is at somewhat of a slower rate than women hope for. In a study done by the PRWeek Magazine, a salary survey in March of 2000 said that women â€Å"wer...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Philosophy Theroy- Conclusion and Premises Essay

Philosophy Theroy- Conclusion and Premises - Essay Example l of prevalent societal attitudes at the time of the film’s making, but could as easily be transferred to more modern times, forcing the viewer to focus on the psychological action occurring rather than the latest high-dollar computer graphic imagery or fast-moving car chase scene. The film opens as the judge in a courtroom informs the jury of its duties before releasing them into the jury room. As the judge speaks, the camera pans across the different faces of the men who comprise the jury as well as the big-eared wide-eyed boy defendant. As the judge gives his directions, he makes it clear that this is a capital murder case and, should the jury return with a guilty verdict, the sentence will be death. With this harsh task on their minds, the jury files quietly into the jury room, none of them looking at the defendant as they do so but with the defendant watching each one of them in turn. As the case is presented, it is made clear that the boy, just turned 18, is on trial for his life accused of having killed his own father in an angry knife attack and then callously removing himself from the home to go watch a film. It is up to the jury to decide, by a vote of guilty or innocent, whether this boy lives or dies. Either they let him go free or they condemn him to death. As the jury files into the room, it is obvious some of them are deeply affected by the weight of their decision while others are clearly convinced their conclusions are obvious. As none of the jurymen are identified by name for most of the movie, only two of them exchanging names at the very end of the film, the only way to refer to them is by their jury number, which is made easier as they sit at the table in this order. Casual chatter before they all convene officially indicates that most of the jury members feel the case is fairly solid, the boy is undeniably guilty of the crime. As the film moves forward, the reasons for this assurance are revealed. First, the boy was known to have

Friday, November 1, 2019

Psychological support for breast cancer women and mastectomy Essay

Psychological support for breast cancer women and mastectomy - Essay Example Addie Gilbert, 51, saw the final straw while trying on her favorite red dress whose front was adorned with stylish criss-cross straps, thinking she might never have to wear it again. Following her mastectomy, the heavy prosthesis underneath was clearly visible. She said, â€Å"I was so depressed that I sat on the floor of my bedroom and cut the dress up into little pieces with scissors† (Boughton, 2000). After her mastectomy, she was not only worried about her inability to wear her favorite clothes in the future, but was also troubled by the trauma brought about by the diagnosis of breast cancer every time she saw her reflection and the scar over her chest in the mirror. Gilbert thus decided to have her breast reconstructed. Her breast was molded by taking skin and tissue from her abdomen. Addition of an areola and nipple three months later with an office procedure made her whole again. Different women respond to the surgery of breast cancer in different ways depending upon th eir psychology, self-perception, age, and whether or not the surgery is accompanied by such adjuvant therapeutic procedures as chemotherapy and radiation. Mastectomy can be hard to come to terms with for women like Gilbert, though it is an acceptable alternative for many other patient of breast cancer. Women undergoing surgery for breast cancer commonly experience major regrets because of severe emotional trauma, complications of surgery, lack of postoperative psychological support, complications of reconstruction, phantom pain, and dissatisfaction with the procedure’s cosmetic outcome. Frost et al. (2000) performed a detailed research to investigate the overall social and psychological well-being and long-term satisfaction in women that have undergone prophylactic mastectomy. The researchers found a 74 per cent reduction in the emotional concern regarding the

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Management Process Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Management Process Analysis - Essay Example Change management is best defined as the process of continuous reviewing and renewing of the direction, structure and capabilities of the organization in order to meet the ever-changing needs and demands of internal and external customers (Todnem, 2005). Organizational change is a very important element of the organizational strategy. It is very important for an organization to have the ability to identify where it needs to be in the future and then manage the change management process in order to get there. The business environment is constantly changing with increased globalization, technological innovation, deregulation, dynamic workforce, shift in demographic and social trends, etc (Todnem, 2005). This makes the change management process even more important. For any organization, to sustain growth and remain successful it is very important that it effectively manages its change management process. One of the best examples of effective change management in modern day businesses is Apple. Apple Inc. Founded in 1976, Apple has become the most valuable company on the planet today. Started as a computer company, Apple has revolutionised the personal computer industry. Apple started with a personal computer, but today its products range from music (iPod) to phones (iPhones). Chief Architect of Apple’s success story is Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple (Royston, 2009). Apple’s journey to the top has not been a smooth one. It has had failures along the way and at one stage was on the verge of being shut down. Apple has adapted to changing environment and the industry needs and demands to become the most successful and valuable company on the planet. Apple’s products include iMac, iPod, iPhone, iPad and iTunes (Apple, 2011). Apple is also developing cloud computing products and services which are not commercially available at. Apple – Change Management Apple is one of the best examples for effective organizational change management. It can be said that Apple has mastered the art of change management. Apple has been successful in understanding the changing needs and demands, and at same time adapt to those changes and needs. It has been able to build a loyal customer base, build new technologies, products and services. Leadership The most important element of Apple’s change management is Steve Jobs, i.e. his leadership. Apple’s nightmarish run started with the exit of Steve Jobs in 1985 and ended with his return in 1996. With the return of Steve Jobs in 1996, there was a major change in the organization’s leadership. The bureaucratic management style that had replaced the creative and entrepreneurial culture (organizational culture that Steve Jobs had infused into Apple in the beginning) had to undergo a major change. Steve Jobs along with him brought back the fly-by-the-seat-of-your-pants entrepreneurial culture back to Apple (Anderson & Anderson, 2010). He redefined the organization’s DNA and ensured its effective implementation. The original culture and the mindset were welcomed by the workforce and they responded with creativity and innovation. With the change in leadership, the management structure was now redefined with only very few management layers. This was vital in order to accommodate the change in the leadership and organizational cul

Monday, October 28, 2019

Dream Vacation Essay Example for Free

Dream Vacation Essay While some people may be quite content to lounge around the city of Karnak all summer as the mosquitoes suck away at their skin, a more perfect spot than this does exist. Pack every suitcase in the house because for the perfect summer time getaway for one who has limited time to head out of Pulaski County, Austin, Texas is the place to be. (64) A traveler on a short schedule will appreciate the time conscious travel plans that can be to arrive in Austin. Flying out of St. Louis on June 7 you can find yourself on Texas soil in just three hours. An added advantage to choosing to stay in the mid-west is the avoidance of high travel costs. With advance planning a round trip ticket to Austin will cost as little as $198.00. (68) Upon landing in Austin, you may rent a car from Avis. They maintain an office on the grounds of Austin Bergstrom International Airport so their facilities are extremely convenient. Their rates are comparable to other car rental agencies. The rate for your state, June 7 through June 10, is just $73.14 a day and that includes the standard rental rate, all surcharges, and local taxes. You will be able to travel in Austin comfortable in a Grand Am or similar style vehicle. (82) Read more: Dream vacation essay At the heart of Austin you will find many hotel accommodations. A highly recommended choice is The Driskell Hotel because of its antique treasures, stunning rooms and soaring ceilings. Adding to the charm of the hotel is a legend that tells of the top floor of the Driskill Hotel being haunted by a playful ghost. As posted on the Internet by an anonymous guest of the hotel, The Driskill Hotel is a must see when coming to the Austin area. From the grandest of suites, to the astonishing lobby, to the ever-so-tasteful Driskill Grill and Bar, The Driskill Hotel is a well rounded hotel and ranks with some of the best in the world! Staying in elegance comes with a cost. The beautiful suites that place you high above the streets of Austin where you can nearly reach out and touch the clouds from the balcony will empty your wallets at a rate of $250.00 a night. The numerous amenities that accompany the room make the price reasonable. Not only will you have a balcony from which you can look out over the city of Austin to see the  bright night lights, you will sleep cozily in a queen size bed, enjoy the open-air feeling with the 19 foot ceilings, and be able to stay in touch through email with the T1 connection. (223) To relieve the stress that has built up during the school year, a visit to the Aziz Salon and Day Spa would be the high point of one of your days. At Aziz you will receive a one-hour therapeutic massage or 30 minute body scrub and 30 minute massage, deep pore cleansing facial, a light lunch, a full manicure and pedicure followed by a warm paraffin treatment, hair and scalp stress relieving oil treatment, shampoo and blow dry, and a personal consultation and makeover with make-up artist. Your skin will feel as soft as a fuzzy peach and will radiate like a gold medallion. The cost, $300, is small in comparison to all of the wonderful treatments you will experience. (120) Taking in some of the country atmosphere of Texas wont be hard to do even after a day of elegance at Aziz and a luxurious night sleep at The Driskell Hotel. On Friday, June 8 you can catch a great performance by the BR5-49. The name of the band doesnt give away any hints as to their style of performing, but a quick background search on the Internet reveals all a listener needs to know. As stated by Craig Shelburne, These guys are hugely entertaining, and their most enthusiastic fans arent afraid of the hillbilly factor. Listening to their music will make you feel as though you are on the range herding cattle abroad a beautiful appaloosa. As the notes from their guitars leave the strings and tickle your ears, you will feel gratification for having spent the $35.00 to purchase a ticket to this event. (146) Many people would think of Tex-Mex when selecting restaurants, but one restaurant that deserves to be considered is the Chinese restaurant Tien Hong. This restaurant has more than just the sweet and sour pork that is stereotyped as the main Chinese dish. A fantastic mouth watering treat is the dim sum they serve. The taste will leave you wanting more even after you find out you are eating chicken feet. The price is quite inexpensive for a fest of Chinese food. Most meals can be purchased for under $15.00. (89) Any further attractions and time fillers are left up to the imagination. If the hotel pool doesnt do the trick for a quick swim, theres Barton Springs Pool. The downtown streets are lined with quaint shops such as Elegante, which specializes in Latin American imports, and Cantus Mexican Hierberia Imports, which sells herbs and healing ointments of all varieties and for all occasions. The locals are friendly and can point you in the right direction if something specific comes to mind during your stay. (84) Austin, Texas may not hit the list of many vacation planners as the ideal dream vacation, but for a short, relaxing get-a-way from the daily grind of teaching, Austin can be a pleasurable vacation that wont break your bank account while rewarding you with the enjoyments of life that often get placed on the back burner during the school year. (60)

Saturday, October 26, 2019

supreme court desicion of hypothetical case :: essays research papers

The appellant, Salim abdul Aziz Rahman, the founder of the group called the Global Islamic Jihad, was convicted under the USA Patriot Act of 2003 for â€Å"furthering the aims of known terrorism organizations by advocating the violence of the United States government that is called for by those organizations.† He was tried and convicted by the Federal District Court, and has challenged the constitutionality of this Act on the grounds that it violates his First Amendment right of Freedom of Speech as protected by the United States Constitution. The United States Patriot Act of 2003 makes it a crime to â€Å"further the aims of known terrorist organizations by advocating the violence against the United States government that is called for by those organizations.† This act was formulated and put into effect after the acts of terrorism in September of 2001.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The record shows that a man identified as the appellant, distributed to the inhabitants of his predominantly Middle-Eastern New York City neighborhood, pamphlets stating â€Å"the American government is controlled by Zionist agents and is using it’s arrogant power to murder believers around the world.† These pamphlets also contained the sentence â€Å"The penalty for murder is death.† These pamphlets were printed and distributed by his organization, Global Islamic Jihad.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  At a rally of his organization in April of 2002, Mr. Rahman burned a flag (though protected by Texas v Johnson, 491 US 397, ‘O’Brien 626’), and presented a speech where he called for â€Å"death to any country that supports Zionist aggression against true believers† as well as cataloging â€Å"American crimes against humanity.† In a speech on the day of his arrest in this same Middle-Eastern neighborhood, the appellant catalogued â€Å"America’s crimes against humanity and the believers,† as well as declaring â€Å"We must not sit by idle. We must stand up with all of our strength with our brothers and sisters who struggle against the Zionists and against those who help them with money and weapons. The treacherous Jews and Crusaders must go down. Jihad knows no boundaries and no limitations on its means.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Through legal FBI wiretaps, it was found that Mr. Rahman was in direct contact with representatives of the Muslim Brotherhood, a political group both in the United States and abroad. Previously an Egyptian terrorist group whom publicly renounced violence, this group now claims to advocate a â€Å"peaceful transition to a worldwide Islamic state.† However, this group often conveys ideas by known terrorist organizations that it calls â€Å"brothers in the great cause.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Doping in Sports is a Problem Essay

Doing steroids, which is known as doping, is a problem in sports that needs to be stopped and needs to be stopped fast. Ask anyone with a decent knowledge of sports and current events, and they will tell you: nearly every week, another high-profile doping story makes its way to the headlines of newspapers around the world. A quick Google News search for â€Å"doping† revealed over 7,500 results from the past week alone. The stories ranged from the lesser known 2 Youth Olympic Games Wrestlers who were recently suspended to the more famous 2010 Tour de France winner Alberto Contador’s positive test. This month, Brent Musburger (an ABC/ESPN sports commentator) told a group of students at University of Montana that steroids work. Musburger blamed â€Å"journalism youngsters† who â€Å"got too deeply involved in something they didn’t know too much about† for the negative image steroids and doping now have. He went on to say that steroids had no place in high school, but â€Å"under the proper care and doctor’s advice, they could be used at the professional level.† (Quotes take from the Missoulian article.) If you know me (or have been in a class with me), you know how I feel about doping in sports. In fact, anti-doping was one of the reasons I came to law school, and more specifically to Marquette. My view is that doping has no place in sport. The story of how I came to become so staunchly against doping is for another day (and perhaps a different venue), but basically involves my love for the sport of cycling and the systematic doping that plagues that sport. Suffice it to say that I take a firm stance against doping in all sports in all forms. It probably goes without saying that I could not disagree with Musburger more. Doping, least of all in the form of anabolic steroids, has no place in sports – amateur or professional. I think all anti-doping arguments come down to two basic principles, only one of which Musburger addresses in his blanket approval of steroid use in professional athletes. First, doping threatens the health of athletes. Musburger argues that with proper medical supervision, steroids can be healthy. While this might be true in some (and I would suggest limited) cases, it would certainly not be true in all cases. The use of steroids can have serious health repercussions, including affected liver, endocrine, and reproductive function, tumors of the liver and kidneys, heart conditions, and psychiatric symptoms. Additionally, the article just linked goes on to mention the increased probability of side effects when 1) steroids are used more than the recommended dose, 2) steroids are used in conjunction with other performance enhancing substances, and 3) counterfeit or tainted steroids are used. Legalizing steroid use would not solve these problems. The side effects listed in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (a part of the National Institute of Health) article are not restricted to improper use of steroids. I will not detail out the side effects of not only steroids, but also the use of hGH and EPO (often used in cycling), the NCBI does a nice job of listing those and providing citations to studies. Furthermore, the drive to win will always encourage athletes to take â€Å"just one more.† Sure, proper medical supervision would ensure that an athlete receives the proper dose from that doctor, but when that athlete fails to win the next race, game, or match, he or she is more likely to increase the dose or combine other methods of doping. Second, and unaddressed by Musburger, doping affects the integrity of sport. Sport is not about simply winning. The saying â€Å"It’s not about whether you win or lose, it’s how you played the game,† although clichà ©, is absolutely correct. The Olympic Movement identifies the Olympic spirit – mutual understanding, spirit of friendship, solidarity, and fair play – as fundamental to sport. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was founded on the principle that integrity of sport is fundamental to the spirit of sport, and that integrity is threatened by doping. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) division on anti-doping believes that â€Å"doping jeopardizes the moral and ethical basis of sport and the health of those involved in it.† The National Football League itself created its own steroid policy because steroid use threatens â€Å"the fairness and integrity of athletic competitionâ€Å" and †Å"sends the wrong message to young people who may be tempted to use them.† Sports are about competition on equal footing, with respect for the opponent, and with respect for the rules of the game. Permitting the use of steroids under proper medical supervision would threaten the fairness and integrity of the game. First, athletes who choose not to use steroids are at an unfair advantage – most will be unable to compete at the same level as athletes who are using steroids. Second, the integrity of the game is compromised because it is no longer about which athlete has the best skills or talent, it’s instead about which athlete has the best steroid cocktail or the money to buy the best steroids. Thus, steroid use is contrary to the spirit of sport – fairness, respect, and solidarity. The concept of mutual respect between competitors is thwarted when one (or both) athletes would rather use steroids to improve his or her performance than compete based on individual strength, skill, or talent. However, if health and integrity concerns aren’t enough to convince you, consider this final point. Law students, and indeed lawyers, are fond of the slippery slope argument. I think it finds a comfortable place in this debate. It’s a slippery slope between allowing steroid use with proper medical supervision and eliminating anti-doping regulations. Where is the line to be drawn? Will it now be illegal to use steroids only if taken without proper medical supervision? How can proper medical supervision be proven? How does an athlete prove that the steroids in his or her body were as a result of proper medical supervision and not other means? What about athletes who use more than the recommended dose? What about other forms of doping (hGh or EPO)? Are those next to be permitted under proper medical supervision? It’s difficult to see how regulating the use of steroids in sport is workable. The only way to preserve integrity in sport and protect the health of athletes is through a serious anti-doping approach. Anti-doping efforts are most successful when the â€Å"law† (anti-doping policy) sets forth clear, bright-line rules about when and what substances are prohibited. Although a long way from perfect, WADA has created the most comprehensive anti-doping program in the world (indeed the only anti-doping program most of the world outside of the US models and implements). American professional sports leagues should be looking at ways to model the WADA code in its own anti-doping policies (like the United States Anti-Doping Agency is doing), not seeking ways to excuse steroid use or compromise anti-doping efforts. Steroids have no place in sports.