Saturday, August 31, 2019

Digital Fortress Chapter 14

Becker gazed down at the cadaver. Even hours after death, the Asian's face radiated with a pinkish glow of a recent sunburn. The rest of him was a pale yellow-all except the small area of purplish bruising directly over his heart. Probably from the CPR, Becker mused. Too bad it didn't work. He went back to studying the cadaver's hands. They were like nothing Becker had ever seen. Each hand had only three digits, and they were twisted and askew. The disfigurement, however, was not what Becker was looking at. â€Å"Well, I'll be.† The lieutenant grunted from across the room. â€Å"He's Japanese, not Chinese.† Becker looked up. The officer was thumbing through the dead man's passport. â€Å"I'd rather you didn't look at that,† Becker requested. Touch nothing. Read nothing. â€Å"Ensei Tankado†¦ born January-â€Å" â€Å"Please,† Becker said politely. â€Å"Put it back.† The officer stared at the passport a moment longer and then tossed it back on the pile. â€Å"This guy's got a class-3 visa. He could have stayed here for years.† Becker poked at the victim's hand with a pen. â€Å"Maybe he lived here.† â€Å"Nope. Date of entry was last week.† â€Å"Maybe he was moving here,† Becker offered curtly. â€Å"Yeah, maybe. Crummy first week. Sunstroke and a heart attack. Poor bastard.† Becker ignored the officer and studied the hand. â€Å"You're positive he wasn't wearing any jewelry when he died?† The officer looked up, startled. â€Å"Jewelry?† â€Å"Yeah. Take a look at this.† The officer crossed the room. The skin on Tankado's left hand showed traces of sunburn, everywhere except a narrow band of flesh around the smallest finger. Becker pointed to the strip of pale flesh. â€Å"See how this isn't sunburned here? Looks like he was wearing a ring.† The officer seemed surprised. â€Å"A ring?† His voice sounded suddenly perplexed. He studied the corpse's finger. Then he flushed sheepishly. â€Å"My God.† He chuckled. â€Å"The story was true?† Becker had a sudden sinking feeling. â€Å"I beg your pardon?† The officer shook his head in disbelief. â€Å"I would have mentioned it before†¦ but I thought the guy was nuts.† Becker was not smiling. â€Å"What guy?† â€Å"The guy who phoned in the emergency. Some Canadian tourist. Kept talking about a ring. Babbling in the worst damn Spanish I ever heard.† â€Å"He said Mr. Tankado was wearing a ring?† The officer nodded. He pulled out a Ducado cigarette, eyed the no fumar sign, and lit up anyway. â€Å"Guess I should have said something, but the guy sounded totally loco.† Becker frowned. Strathmore's words echoed in his ears. I want everything Ensei Tankado had with him. Everything. Leave nothing. Not even a tiny scrap of paper. â€Å"Where is the ring now?† Becker asked. The officer took a puff. â€Å"Long story.† Something told Becker this was not good news. â€Å"Tell me anyway.†

Island Report

Purpose As requested, this report is an assessment of the suitability of Fiji Island for package holidays. The report summarizes the main attractions as well as the accessibility and accommodation. Location and access The Fiji islands are located in the Pacific Ocean off the eastern coast of Australia, therefore the most convenient way of traveling to the island is by plane or by boat. Once on the island, traveling from the airport is possible by using the public transportation such as busses or taxis. Busses run from the airport or the center of the island to any attraction every 15 minutes during the day and every1 hour during the night.Accommodation and restaurants The island aims to provide traditional and authentic Fiji accommodation. This is achieved through the use of bungalows instead of hotels with lined ceilings and thatched roofs. The result is stylish, comfortable and caters for all tastes. There are a lot of restaurants on the island and Fiji’s food is a veritable melting pot of cultural influences from all over the world. However, because of the island’s politics, most of the restaurants close before 10 pm and if tourists want a certain type of restaurant, they have to make a reservation in advance.Tourist attractions Fiji Island offers a wide range of attractions and activities that visitors enjoy such as sailing, scuba-diving, dolphin watching or shopping tours. Also, the island is provided with an open-air fitness where the tourists can relax. However, the prices of this facility are higher in the summer period due to the big number of visitors. Recommendation In conclusion, due to Fiji’s natural beauty as well as the modern facilities, it represents one of the most visited islands and would be able to provide the facilities necessary for a perfect packaged holiday.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Cool Beans Coffee Cafe

Cool Beans Coffee Cafe Kimberly A. McKelvy Dr. Patricia Obiefule BUS 335 – Staffing Organizations February 3, 2013 Identify the type of employment relationship you would establish between the coffee shop and employees from a legal perspective. Explain your reasoning. Cool Beans Coffee Cafe is planning on establishing an employer-employee relationship. A written agreement is going to represent our employment contract, â€Å"the terms and conditions of which represents the promises and expectations of both parties† (Heneman III, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012, p. 48).The employer-employee relationship will be governed by the common law principle which establishes that either party can terminate the employment contract at any time without prior notification. This type of relationship also allows for both Cool Beans Coffee Cafe and a potential employee to establish any additional term of employment and have them placed in writing so there are no discrepancies. Suggest ways that you could avoid claims of disparate treatment. Cool Beans Coffee Cafe is going to follow four principles that should avoid claims of disparate treatment.First, train management about legal obligations under anti-discrimination laws regarding hiring, training, and overall treatment of employees (Lario, Parliman, Kelly, Feher, & Chavey, 2009). Second, create and enforce policies that pertain to how employees will conduct themselves to prevent discrimination. Third, the coffee cafe has to perform yearly audits on employment records and promotion policies and procedures to ensure disparate treatment is not being committed. Lastly, make sure that all job postings and promotions are listed in a central location that all employees can access.Identify the type of external influences that could hinder staffing and how you would address them. Competition for certified baristas with managerial experience might be hard to find. Cool Beans Coffee Cafe is a gourmet coffee cafe that speciali zes in espresso and coffee artistry. The three store managers have to be able to train at least six employees to become coffee artisans. They also have to be experience and creative managers with at least two years of managerial experience. However, we will do our research to see what the competition is offering its entry level and managerial level employees.Then offer a competitive compensation package to potential employees. Competition is the niche market of gourmet coffee shops is saturated. The coffee cafes main competition is Starbucks and other gourmet cafes that serve coffee. In addition, competition from the students that are on the college meal plan that may. The Cool Coffee Beans Cafe will use this to our advantage by creating a gourmet coffee experience that is accessible, affordable and college student friendly. It will give us a competitive advantage over the usual coffee experience.Legal factors and health regulations are an outside influence that has to be addresses. Health regulations such as no employees with communicable diseases can be employed in food service limits the pool of employable candidates. Child labor laws limit the number of people the coffee cafe can employ. In order to address these limitations during the hiring process place job postings in as many avenues that can be used to find qualified candidates. Create a plan that you can use to deal with employee shortages and surpluses.Short Term Shortages Plan * Give incentives to retain current employees. * Rearrange employees from slower shifts to busier shifts (Monegain, 2010). * Ask employees to work overtime at time and a half. * Attract new and creative employees on a temporary basis. Long Term Shortage Plan * Buy state of the art $2,000 coffee machines to increase efficiency, effectiveness, employee satisfaction and customer service. * Instead of making all baked goods in house, subcontract baked good to a recent culinary arts graduate and profit share goods sales. Hire two more part time employees for the busiest shifts. Short Term Surplus Plan * Reduce the amount of overtime hours available. * Temporarily make all employees part-time except for store managers. * During summer months when there are fewer students on campus shorten cafe hours Monday – Friday 6 am to 6 pm and Saturday – Sunday 8 am to 8pm. Long Tem Surplus Plan * Freeze hiring and when an employee leaves do not replacement them. * Reduce workforce by laying off one store manager, one part-time and one full-time employee. Permanent pay cut for all employees. Outline a strategy for workforce diversity. The first workforce diversity strategy is opening recruiting to the largest demographic group possible (Heneman III et al. , 2012). Since Cool Beans Coffee Cafe is located next to a college campus, job postings should be posted in central locations around the college campus to gain the most visibility. Also post job opening for coffee baristas at local culinary art schools bec ause there is a wide array of ethnicities and age groups.The second workforce strategy is encouraging all employees to apply for all open promotional opportunities that they qualify for. Lastly, require all employees to interact in mandatory team building activities that promote diversity. Conduct a job requirements analysis for the store managers and coffee servers in order to identify tasks, KSAOs, and context for those positions. Store Manager Specific Task * Hire, train, and monitor the development of employees. * Schedule employees to cover all shifts and maintain payroll guidelines. Hold team accountable to prepare and serve beverages and food products to company standards. * Complete all training programs and maintain barista certification. Store Manager KSAOs * Knowledge of specialty coffee shop operation and policies. * Ability to work a flexible schedule based on coffee shop needs. * Knowledge of basic math and proficient computer skills. * Skilled at creating unique and a ppealing coffee blends. Coffee Server Specific Task * Take customer orders and provide receipts that identify order numbers. Brew coffee, espresso and other beverages in containers that customers request. * Serve customers in a friendly manner at counter or at dining tables. * Perform cleaning duties at front counter, kitchen, customer tables, and restroom. Coffee Server KSAOs * Knowledge and fluency in English. * Skilled at actively listening to customer orders and communicate customers order back for correctness. * Able to assess information, evaluate problems and find the best possible solution for the coffee shop. References Heneman III, H. G. , Judge, T. A. amp; Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2012). Staffing Organizations (7th ed. ). Middleton, WI: Mendota House / McGraw-Hill. Lario, W. J. , Paliman, G. C. , Kelly, T. A. , Feher, K. J. & Chavey, V. C. (2009). EEOC’s ‘Best Practices’ To Avoid Disparate Treatment Claims by Employees. Retrieved from http://www. marti ndale. com/legal-management/article_Day-Pitney-LLP_696000. htm. Monegain, B. (2010). AHA offers 10 tips on how to deal with workforce shortages. Retrieved from http://www. healthcareitnews. com/news/aha-offers-10-tips-how-deal-workforce-shortage? page=0,1.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Stateless Nation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Stateless Nation - Essay Example this research will be, â€Å"The past, present, and future prospects of the Kurds and Kurdistan.† The Kurds have lived in the hilly regions of Turkey and Iran for more than two thousand years. However, this typical group of people with an Indo-European background has never secured a home or national status (West 1). The Kurds, in the 1990s, the Turkish state evicted the Kurds. This stood as a resettlement rather than just an eviction, and the Kurds had to move out of their urban and rural entities that they initially had (Jongerden 4). The following disciplines will assist in researching about the Kurds on this topic: politics, historical, and behavioral. The Kurds have a rich history and this study will highlight their past struggles and illuminate reasons behind their statelessness. Many nations are also involved in the statelessness of Kurdistan. Researching on this aspect will elucidate the political factors intertwined with the Kurdistan (West). Finally, looking into the behavioral aspects of the Kurdistan will present the life these peoples life and impact of their statelessness on their information seeking behavior (Meho and Haas). Meho, Lokman I., and Stephanie W. Haas. â€Å"Information-Seeking Behavior and Use of Social Science Faculty Studying Stateless Nations: A Case Study.† Library & Information Science Research 23.1 (2001):

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Effective Presentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Effective Presentation - Essay Example An image on a slide, for instance, can be effective in attracting the viewer’s attention towards the subject of the key theme of the presentation. A picture may also evoke powerful emotions in the viewers and, therefore, serve to attract attention. Visual expressions serve a fundamental role in enhancing the quality of the presentation. A picture showing the differences in impact on an individual hit at 40 mph and 30 mph, for instance, may inform the audience of the critical implication of escalating by a difference of 10 mph. The picture may be used to show that there is a high chance of an accident victim surviving when hit at 30mph compared to 40mph. A descriptive visual impression, therefore, is important in enhancing the presentation quality. Graphics are important in explaining detailed information that, in some instances, requires emphasis and comprehensive explanations. Inserting statistical data using tools such as graphs is decorative and helps clarify the information presented. It helps place the message in its context and add meaning to it as well as emphasizing its significance. Use of statistical presentation tools such as pie charts and graphs renders it easy to make comparisons, for instance. Besides financial data, scientific information such as the functioning of organs including the brain is best attainable trough inclusion of graphics. The National Geographic 3D mapping of the human memory is an example. National Geographic (2015) uses the 3D map of human memory to illustrate the various parts of the brain and their functioning systems. The interactive is useful in explaining the formation of memories in the brain. Besides, it is important to show other brain functionalities and processes. Graphics are vital in emphasizing the context of communication. That is particularly important when explaining scientific processes and concepts to viewers. Processes that occur in chronological order are best explained

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Gender Preference in Nursing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Gender Preference in Nursing - Essay Example Descriptive (frequencies, means and SD) and nonparametric inferential statistics (Spearman correlation, Kruskal–Wallis test, chi-square and Mann–Whitney U-test – large sample z approximation) were performed on the data collected from the questionnaires. All data were handled using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 6†¢1 for the Macintosh. A result was accepted as significant if the probability level was This form of statistical analysis was implemented because it was the most practical for this type of research study. The analysis of variance model (or "ANOVA model") examines the association between nominal predictor variables (e.g., gender, experimental condition, whether or not treatment was received or not) and a continuous outcome variable (e.g., depression, health quality of life). The predictor variables are sometimes called "factors" or "independent variables." The outcome variable may be also referred to as the "dependent variable." The ANOVA model is a univariate model, in that interest is in how the predictors affect a single outcome variable. (Chur-Henson) Using the results that were obtained through this type of statistical analysis revealed that in both 1984 and 2000, no effects due to the respondent answering the nurse or doctor items first was found. Nor did the time or day on which the questionnaire was completed have any bearing on answers.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Entrepreneurial Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Entrepreneurial Leadership - Essay Example Case (2010) identifies three P’s (people, passion and perseverance) as the key ingredients of a successful entrepreneurship. He said that the presence or absence of the three P’s in the right mix can lead to success or failure as an entrepreneur. His successful steering of AOL has been contributed to these 3 P’s by him (Case, 2010). However, the failure of merger of AOL with Time Warner was a result of incorrect focus on the 3 P’s. The merger resulted in cultural clash of employees and hence they were focused on their personal issues rather than the innovations. The passion that was earlier present in AOL employees was lost in the huge merged enterprise and finally perseverance was hit hard because people lost their belief in internet and they stopped investing in innovation. Another thing lacking in the deal was â€Å"vision execution†. A great idea rebounded because the 3 P’s were not rightly focused on â€Å"executing† the vision (C ase, 2010). Kouzes (2008) talks about five leadership practices which help in motivating people to perform at their best. Thus, he also focused on people and showed how great leaders inspire them to arouse perseverance and passion in them. The five principles are – having a clear vision of what is required so that the employees understand what is expected of them and they move accordingly, setting example by doing what is being preached, challenging the current state of affairs as status quo never inspires people to perform at their best, enabling others to act in line with the vision by understanding the motivation factors of a team or individual and encouraging the heart by rewarding exemplary performance (Kouzes, 2008). Drucker (2007) distinguishes between entrepreneurial strategies and entrepreneurial management. The first strategy is that of being seen as the undisputed leader in the market. Strategies are for external markets and can be used alone or in combination with others. It is the riskiest but pays the most if successful. This is what AOL tried to do by merging with Time Warner. Other strategies involve â€Å"creative imitation†, â€Å"entrepreneurial judo† and finding a specialized â€Å"ecological niche† (Drucker, 2007). This gives rise to entrepreneurial leadership where leaders operate in dynamic market conditions and transform the inconsistency and dynamic character of the market into opportunities (Tarabishy, Fernald and Solomon,). He is capable of using different strategies or a combination of them to establish his product/ service or company in the current environment. The entrepreneurial leader should have a clear vision, communicate it well and then help his people execute it. Types of organizations and leadership styles Organizations can be classified into different types depending on their size, culture, decision making authority and design etc. An organization which follows top-down communication, has very rigid rules, is bureaucratic in authority and has very narrowly defined tasks is called a â€Å"Mechanist Organization† (Kinicki, 2007). On the other hand an â€Å"Organic Organization† is flexible, with open communication networks, flat hierarchical structure and employees who perform variety of tasks and not just the specific ones (Kinicki, 2007). Decision making in such organizations is de-centralized and middle and lower level managers have more control over various decisions. For transformational leaders, an organic organization is best

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Global Business Environment Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Global Business Environment - Case Study Example P&G started as a small soap and candle company started by William Proctor and James Gamble in the year 1837 in the Cincinnati United States now has 138,000 employees working in over 80 countries worldwide. The company’s products and services are available to consumers over 180 countries. The company maintains one of the strongest and largest portfolios of trusted brands.  The company markets nearly 300 well-known brands in consumer goods and more than 50 percent of its revenues are derived from foreign countries. Being the market leader in the FMCG market P&G has proved to be one of the aggressive marketers and the largest advertiser in the world. Extensive market research and the novel brand-management system are the unique strengths of the company (Proctor & Gamble).  The success of P&G largely depended on its business technique called ‘brand management’ which implied that the company will focus its attention on a product rather than on a business function. The technique involves a decentralized decision making. The company began its global expansion during the early 1990s when the top management felt the need for streamlining the brand management system. For carrying out a planned expansion the company established a ‘Global Strategic Planning Group’ consisting of 3-20 individuals for each of the product categories. This group was made responsible for developing policies covering global and local brands. The group was also empowered to make decisions concerning ‘brand strategy’ which needs to be standardized across the world markets. It also involved customizing the products according to local markets and customer requirements.  While developing the branding strategies was made the responsibility of the Global Strategic Planning Group the implementation of the strategies was entrusted to the ‘Global Category Team’. The Global Category Team is headed by an executive vice president who handles eac h of the product categories.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Challenges in implementing a Total Quality Management system in a Thesis Proposal

Challenges in implementing a Total Quality Management system in a culturally diversified workforce - Thesis Proposal Example The research proposal critically analyzes the problems faced by management in implementing Total Quality Management for better services and concludes on the efficient steps that top management can take (Perry & Heron, 2003). Total Quality Management (TQM) is an essential business strategy which creates and embeds awareness of quality in the institutional process of implementing its duties. It is the organization-wide management of quality and it encompasses planning, organizing, control and assurance. It is the concern of many organizations to ensure that the services they offer are of high quality to satisfy the stakeholders. Quality of products is the basis of TQM. The approach is centered on the quality as a way forward of realizing long term success through customer success (Perry & Heron, 2003). What are the effects of cultural diversity on implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) process? What are the challenges that organizations face in implementing TQM in culturally diversified workforce? The questions of the research proposal are very paramount and interesting since the research will be driven by the questions. The questions guide the researcher especially when collecting information or data to be used in ascertaining the actual impacts of cultural diversity on organizations. The research questions will act as the framework throughout the research work. When the researcher is out in the field, he will be using the questions to know whether they are collecting the right data. On the other hand, the questions are very relevant to the management of an organization because they use them to take corrective measures. Diversity in the workplace is a common phenomenon that has both negative and positive impacts on management and implementation of different operations in an organization. Past research conducted reveals that differences between different stakeholders impact the process of

Friday, August 23, 2019

Erich Korngold Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Erich Korngold - Essay Example Carroll calls him "a remarkable child prodigy composer" and supports this with a quote by Strauss. On the other hand, Palmer does not go overboard with words and maintains balanced critique; he writes of Korngold as continuing "to compose prolifically, and with great success," throughout his teens, and later remarks that his works like Die Kathrin received "less critical acclaim and failed to gain a foothold in the repertory." Thus Palmer's article is quite succinct in praise. While Palmer ends his article with a comment on Korngold's strong points and deficiencies, Carroll end the article on a highly charged note of positive praise, raising Korngold's stature to a "once forgotten classic composer" now regaining his popularity posthumously. An interesting revelation in comparison is that Palmer seems to have almost paraphrased Carroll's words; "and have ensured the renewed and growing interest"as in Carroll's own words it appears as "after decades of neglect, a gradual reawakening of interest.increasingly popular." Now turning to the third article appeared in New Grove's Dictionary of music and musician Carroll seems to have re-written most of the parts of this article from his earlier version. Added to that, he seems to have bettered his chronological references to the works and achievements of Korngold. Also, Carroll's assessment of Korngold's compositions for Hollywood is rather detailed in technicalities. One would strongly fee... Added to that, he seems to have bettered his chronological references to the works and achievements of Korngold. Also, Carroll's assessment of Korngold's compositions for Hollywood is rather detailed in technicalities. As is obvious in Carroll's earlier articles on Korngold, the critic has high praise for the musician and hails him as a composer of "lush" style and praises his music as having "vibrant sensuousness." One would strongly feel that Carroll's intention is to ensure that Korngold is glorified and added to the cannon of world renowned classical composers, while Palmer restrains from overtures of high-flying praise. Palmer's article is more "academic" in nature as the references are acceptable. Though both critics have categories of similarity, like noting Korngold's landmark achievements and his gradual fame, in Hollywood, Palmer does seem more truthful in his article while Carroll's use of positive and superlative adjectives make him seem as being an international cannonizer lobbying for Korngold's position. Conclusion: Based on the representation by Palmer and Carroll in their articles, it is trustworthy to believe Palmer who has tried to represent Korngold's work in words the way a painter paints a picture of nature, the way he sees it, where as Carroll has tried to add some flavor to his

Final LSL Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Final LSL - Assignment Example Lack of a corridor to the Diablo Range could lead to the death and extinction of these wildlife animals (The Nature Conservancy, â€Å"California: Mount Hamilton†). 4. Ecosystem Management - How can a large-scale or â€Å"landscape† approach to regional planning help wildlife: Planning is essential as it will prevent the depletion of the corridors due to factors such as urbanization or even industrialization. Planning will ensure protection of animals from predators when they are migrating to safer areas. Lastly, planning will help regulate the amount of water drawn from the landscape for the purposes of agricultural practices by the people living close to the corridor thus prevent frequent migration of animals to look for water. All living things and non living things cannot survive without the ecosystem in place. This is what determines where we get our food from and how the plant themselves get food from the soil. The wildlife corridors in our environment are very essential to animals. Their depletion will definitely cause an imbalance the ecosystem this is because; lack of the corridor will definitely lead to the extinction of the rare species of animals that normally depend on the corridor when they are migrating to sustainable area. The corridor helps support animal life because when faced with lack of water, they have to migrate to look for water else if the corridor doesn’t exist, that means that that population is dead. So planning on how big the corridor is should be important as factors such as urbanization and human agricultural activity are proving to reduce water in the landscape and also humans are starting to cover the corridor landscape thus causing the extinction of the animals there . As a conclusion, wildlife in essential to the environment and lack of these animals will definitely lead to an imbalance in the ecosystem, and thus preservation of the corridor will lead

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Teeth Roll Crusher Both Take an Important Essay Example for Free

Teeth Roll Crusher Both Take an Important Essay The roller crusher is mainly used for the crushing of medium or lower-hardness mines and rocks with medium or lower rigidity in the trade of cement, metallurgy, chemical industry, electric power, coal and other industrial. The crushing materials include limestone, slag, coke and coal. This teeth roll crusher apply to coal, metallurgy, mine, chemical industry, building materials industries more suitable for large coal or coal gangue) crude (including the broken. Teeth roll crusher work principle and main structure: teeth roll crusher mainly adopts special wear-resisting teeth roll high-speed material crushing (for errupted tooth roll crusher traditional with a low extrusion), formed the mechanism of high productivity. The five categories used in the crushing machine, Roll crusher and hammer crusher impact with the main role belongs to brittle material to break the machine, it is often called the impact crusher. Impact crusher and the crusher-based compression, such as jaw, cone and roll crusher and other match, have the following characteristics: 1). Crushing ratio. Roll crusher can reach the crushing ratio above 50, while the jaw, cone and roll crusher is difficult to over 20. Thus, in the need for single-stage crushing of occasions, such as cement industry, limestone crusher, Roll crusher is widely used. 2). Good product particles.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Maesrsk Line Company

The Maesrsk Line Company The Maesrsk Line Company is the global containerized division of the A.P. Moller. The company delivers its services across the world through ocean transportation services. They built their vision and their mission from a strong constant care, heritage of uprightness, and innovation, and this vision has made a path for their business operations since Maersk lines first vessel sailed in 1904. The focus and commitment to this vision made them able to expand the business and become largest ocean carrier of the world. And they are constantly recognized as the most reliable container shipping company. A.P. Moller Maersk Group headquarters at the waterfront in Copenhagen, Denmark The fleet of the maersk line is consist of more than 600 vessels and the total number of containers is more than 3,800,000 TEU*. This shows a comprehensive and reliable coverage worldwide. Maesks Lines Philosophy: We share the same values and principles of business with the maesks line group to be a known, highly respected and world-class group. The founder Mr. A.P. Moller wrote Loss should not hit us, and constant care is needed for it. These words are highly followed and having deep meaning at the company. Word constant care is highly focused on the safety and good health of the employees and others in the industry and environment around them. Our Values: The core values of the Maersk line group are the demonstration n of constant care, regard for our employees, humbleness and uprightness and the protection of the name of the company. The success lies in the fulfillment of these values while carrying out the business. Our business principles: The maersk fundamental business principles is comprises of how do we conduct our business, these principles are applicable on national as well as international legislation. Environment: Our constant care also revolves around the protection of environment. We maximize the use of the resources and handle the waste. The policy regarding environmental protection is we focus on the protection of the environment and environmental consideration is our first priority in conducting our business. Our mission: We provide opportunities in global commerce. Company facts and information: Maersk Line is the leading container shipping company all over the world. It has more than 600 vessels and more than 3, 800, 0000 (a container is 20 feet long). It shows the comprehensive and reliable coverage all over the world. What is container shipping? Containerization, it is large and worldwide system of intermodal cargo transport by using standardized containers. This can be sealed and reloaded onto container ships, trucks and planes, railroad cars. Before the containers were introduced, it was time consuming and expensive to handle the cargo for sea transportation. The containers have brought change in that and it made transport easier and affordable than ever before. All the types of commodities and the type of goods can be carried and loaded in the box; as a result the modernized container shipping has changed the ways of transportation around the world and played a vital role in globalization. Sustainability: Since it is a biggest shipping line in the world, Maersk Line plays a vital role in facilitating efficient and reliable supply chains for many companies. It is recognized that the position of maersk line as an enabler of global trade have brought great opportunities. Global trade of manufactured goods has increased over 100 times, from 95 billion USD to 12 trillion in the last 5 decades. Today 90% of global trade is done through ocean transport and containerization have played very important role in this development. Awards and Recognition: Maersk Line wins Shipping Company of the Year award in the Middle East 14 December 2012 Maersk Line takes home two Global Freight Awards 26 November 2012 Maersk Line wins Lloyds List Environment Award for the Middle East and Indian Subcontinent 19 October 2012 Maersk Line wins Clean Excellence Award 25 September 2012 Maersk Line wins Social Media Campaign of the Year Award 17 September 2012 Maersk Line wins 2012 Best Global Shipping Line Award 7 June 2012 Maersk Lines à gnes Hernà ¡d wins Best Young Manager of the Year 20 February 2012 Maersk Line Wins Shipping Line of the Year Award 1 December 2011 Maersk Line wins two awards at AFSCA 2011 Maersk wins European Business Award 2010 Maersk Line Best Global Shipping Line, Best Shipping Line for Asia-Europe, and Best Green Service Provider Shipping Line 2009. Maersk Line awarded Container Shipping Line of the Year 2007 Maersk Line wins Best Global Shipping Line 2006 Maersk Sealand named Best global shipping line 2005 Best Global Shipping Line award 2004 HR Processes: Recruitment and selection at Maersk Line: Maersk Line strictly follows the Equal employment opportunity Law while hiring candidates for a particular department. They make sure no discrimination take place throughout the procedure of hiring an employee. The advantage of strictly following such law is that Maersk Line never face any problem pertaining to legal complexities and law suits regarding the hiring of candidates. The recruitment process starts with the submission of online application by a candidate and a confirmation pop-up appears on the screen. A reply will be sent within few days so that the applications can be reviewed carefully. Applications are reviewed on the basis of some standard tools so that company can make it sure that a candidate is eligible for giving interviews. The mediums of recruitment which they prefer are: Employment Agencies: These agencies make links between the employers and employees. Internet: The advertisements on different job websites, which capture the a huge pool of candidates who can apply in the company to get the job they are capable for. Employee Referrals Its an internal recruiting method which identifies their potential candidates from the existing workforces social networks. This scheme encourages existing employees to choose the suitable candidate for a particular job from their social networks. A referral bonus is given to referring employee as a reward. It is the most efficient and cost effective method for recruitment. Announcement on the official website They Announce the new jobs on their official website i.e. Website has the particular portion of vacancies and the whole process of how to apply is mentioned. Evaluation of internal labor supply They prefer Internal Labor Supply over External: Those positions which are at higher levels and become vacant due to transfers, deaths, demotions and promotions, are filled by the internal employees who are already familiar with the required managerial roles and responsibilities of those positions. These positions are then posted on the notice boards throughout the PSO offices and are also posted on a software device that is displayed on almost every computer desktop at PSO offices. The interested employees are screened, interviewed and positioned. The criteria of selecting the internal employee depend on requirements of the qualification, age and experience recommended by the line manager Selecting and interviewing Process: Selection process: Advertise Test 1st Interview 2nd Interview HIRE There is a predetermined criterion for hiring of candidates, which includes Logical and personality Test It is the standardized instruments of testing individuals character of psychological makeup. It also reveals the aspects of how logical the candidate is. These tests play an important role in making the selection process easier. Behavioral Interviews These interviews discover the behavior of an interviewee. It reveals that how an interviewee acted in particular situation faced in the past. And it will predict that how he or she will act in the future. In traditional interviews there is a series of question asked, that has the straight forward answers Like what challenges did you face? How did u handle them? Or what are your strengths and weaknesses?But in the behavioral interviews questions are more pointed and more specific than questions in the traditional interview. Like describe any example of a goal reached by you and how did you achieved it? or how did you work effectively when you were under pressure? In order to get selected, candidates must fulfill the criteria they are tested upon. English Grammar: English comprehension Basic Mathematics: Identification of Resources required in particular Department: Need Analysis Departmental Goals Organizational Goals Interviewing Process: Two structured interviews are generally conducted of a candidate at Maersk Line. The first interview is conducted by Human Resources which are focused on the candidates personal skills and capabilities. They use online or hard copy assessment tools to try to form an objective picture of candidates personal characteristics and logical capabilities and a feedback is provided as a part of the process. The second interview is normally conducted by the hiring manager who makes the final hiring decisions and focuses on the specific qualities and skills which are required for the particular job. The whole recruitment process usually takes 4 to 6 weeks; it could be vary depending on the locations. Orientation and Trainings: Training and development is a continuous process, and is designed to bring about a change in attitude of employees with respect to the job they are doing, the people around them, the new procedures, the new techniques and skills that they can use. It is also to make them more conscious of their responsibilities and how to perform them effectively. Therefore, all training is planned and coordinated in a systematic manner by the company, in term so identifying following needs and the skills required in the company. The training and skill development efforts are not confined to a formal class room course but extended in all directions, hence, helping to improve the productivity of employees by imparting useful knowledge and training in the areas, which are neglected, and to add up to the most of their strengths. The growth of the employees is not only a short term vision of enhancing inputs through skills based on training but also an effort for the long term development of employees by education and planned management development inputs. Types of Training at Maersk Line: Orientation Program: Newly inducted employees are given a short orientation course to familiarize them with the company, organizational functions, activities, policies, procedures and programs. This type of training program may be arranged on individual basis or group class room training, depending on number of participants available. The duration and contents of the course is determined to meet the needs of individual concerned in consultation with respective departmental heads. Depending on the type of job, newly hired employees, as well as the promotes assigned to new field of activities, are given on the job training for a period ranging from one week to four weeks, as may be deemed necessary. They make sure that people are empowered to do their job well Indoor simulators: Job knowledge is an essential part of everyones responsibility in any position. Since technology, methodology, processes are changing at a fast pace, it is imperative that employees should learn new skills and techniques through specialized and technical courses organized within the company. Seminars and constructive discussion groups: seminars are conducted to spread the awareness regarding different programs plus it provides a platform for the employer and the employees to socialize. Group case studies play an important role in a constructive discussion between the employees. Practical exposure and experiences: As a trainee in their company an employee will be given a responsibility from day 1 and will be provided with a proper toolkit enabling him to experience a real job. The Maersk group runs a trainee program which provides opportunities to get solid and a broad shipping knowledge. The applicants will be the part of business represented in many countries they are looking for energetic, passionate about shipping and eager to learn individuals who can apply as a Chartering or Operation Trainee in this program. Chartering Trainee: as a chartering trainee, he or she will be responsible for fixing the vessels and cargos. You are to ensure that the vessels sail with the right cargo. Operation Trainee: as an operation trainee employee will be responsible to make sure that the operations of vessels are efficient and safe. And will have to perform following tasks. Issuing voyage instructions Appointing agents Planning bunkering Market voyage analysis Handling insurance and legal matters The trainee will have a broad network of stakeholders including agents, ship managers, port captains and charters. Performance Management: To maintain a sustainable Performance of an employee, Maersk Human resource management measures some of the main factors which has a high impact on employees performances. Work output Personal Competency Goals achieved Performance appraisal Methods at Maersk Line: HR managers should be very careful while selecting methodology used to measure performance of an individual. Maersk Line uses the following methods. MBO Each employee is assign with the specific tasks and goals, and then the progress of those goals is reviewed periodically. Goal setting is done by mainly focusing on the Organizational goals. Secondly the departmental goals are assigned to different departments working in the company, then these goals are discussed with the employees and employees get to know what is expected from them, which defines their individual goals. Finally the progress of these goals is reviewed and employees receive feedbacks. Paired ranking method ranking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of the employees for each trait and indicating which one is the better employee of the pair. Forced distribution method similar to grading on curve; predetermined percentages of rates are placed in various performance categories. Example: 15% high performers 20% high-average performers 30% average performers 20% low-average performers 15% low performers Goals achieved The process starts when HR throws performance appraisal forms to different departments. This appraisal form has two sides: Employee Development Report-1 (EDR1) Employee Development Report-2 (EDR2) EDR-1 In EDR1 employee he identifies the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), the employees themselves set the objectives and targets for the following year. EDR-2 In EDR2 it is the line manager who rates the employee performance by quoting significant performance achievements and deficiencies for the past year. He indicates what development and training will employee need in the future according to the highlighted areas in the current year. When both of them end up the negotiation then the appraisal form is sent to HR department for further follow up of the respective training or development arrangements. This way the Performance appraisal system reaches to end. These performance appraisal methods are very useful in order to maintain competition and for employees to focus on Key performance indicators (KPIs). And the results extracted from these methods become the basis of promotion, rewards, incentives, bonuses, or layoff and punishment for an employee. Compensation Benefits: Since the Maersk line is very careful in maintaining the equality among their employees, they never face any equity issue. The wages and salaries are set on the basis of employees Education Experience Market conditions Human capabilities The pay raise is given to an employee on the yearly basis. Maersk line negotiate the salary with a candidate on his own terms and conditions only when the job is highly skilled, when company wants to retain its loyal employee and when an employee is an exceptional performer. Career Development at Maersk Line: Maersk line is highly involved in investment in training and education. Over the years A.P. Moller maersk group has its own training system which is implemented over the years and constantly updated. And it is directed towards meeting the global and international organizations particular requirement. Their experience shows that the employee cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of written applications and the examination results. It is essential that the personal impression of the individual behind the papers should be evaluated. Everybody who is formally eligible and has the qualification required for the certain position, can expect to be invited for the interview with Human Resource Department at Maersk line. Maersk Line believes that career development is one of the most important steps in maintaining organizational performance. Maersk Line always helps its employees to build their career and achieve their personal goals by giving their best. And contribution which is made by the company is: Job enlargement Job Rotation Career Path Defined It is important to recognize when the employee is ready for promotion, because if an employee will not be promoted at the right time he might get demotivated. Maersk line recognize such employees when there is availability of position and employees exhibition of competencies for performance in the new role. In case, when the employee leaves the organization when his/her promotion plan is ready, the HR gives someone else dual responsibilities for the time being. PROBLEMS: There are number of potential drawbacks in different stages. One of the greatest concerns regarding relying too much on employee referrals could become the reason of limited diversity at workplace. Hiring from the same existing networks may bound a company to capture diverse pool of candidate, it is good for reducing cost expenditure but on the other hand it could become the big hurdle for the company if the company is relying on such method too heavily. This simple method could have many risks, e.g. when there is a need to fill particular Job the simple question is asked from the existing employees i.e. Is there anyone in your mind who can fill this Job? In response to this question employees may think of the potential benefits for their close ones in their network, rather than thinking constructively for the organization. It is not necessary that every time a new employee comes in through reference is beneficial for the company, it carries risks with it, it could take time to measure his/her effectiveness, and if the new employee is not prod uctive, eventually it will increase the cost of the company and employee will become the liability on the company. Solution: There is certain planning and strategies which can save the company from these problems Communicate the benefits to employees for the successful referrals; give them rewards, incentives and bonuses for the successful referral. This strategy can change the way employees think when they are asked to bring the best candidate for the particular job, now they will think of the best candidate in their mind, who will serve the company most efficiently and effectively. The reward amount should be sufficient enough to motivate the employees who make referrals but not too much that may lead them to make referrals of unqualified candidates. The bonuses should be given in installments because the effectiveness of the new employee cannot be measured in few days, it may take time. In order to be safe from a big loss company should make payments of bonuses in installments. The company may limit the number of bonus qualifying referrals that is made by each employee per year. This will reduce the number of employee referrals per year. The mandatory qualification and specifications should be clearly mentioned and delivered to the employees who make referrals. It will reduce the risk of getting unqualified employees. All the requests for employee referrals should be added to the pool of the candidates. Problem: 3 The advertisement for the Job which is offered by the company is very much important in order to gather a better pool of candidates. Maersk Line is highly dependent on the internet as medium of advertisement for the jobs. They dont prefer NEWSPAPER for the advertisement of their Jobs; as a result they are missing a large number of candidates who prefer Newspapers to find jobs. Solution: In order to get better employees a company must have a large pool of candidate so that it can be used for hiring employees when there is a need to fill the job in emergency. Newspaper plays an important role in spreading awareness among public. Since its an oldest and most popular medium of advertisements civilized and educated people read newspaper as a matter of habit in all over the world. Therefore it has a wide and general appeal. The message can reach a large number of audiences quickly. Choosing the best newspaper is also important, so the Maersk line can improve its pool of candidates by spreading word through Newspaper. Problem: 4 When we asked them; Has it ever happened that an employee might have left the Organization due to some reason; while the HR had plans for his promotion ready? Yes No They chose YES, And then we asked the next question; With Reference to the above scenario, what did the HR do? (If the above Question is answered as a NO, then suppose a scenario with the above details answer this question, what would the HR do?) Promote an immediate subordinate Bring in a Contingent Employee Give someone dual responsibilities for the time being Hire an individual from a pool of already collected CVs. They chose the third option which is Give someone dual responsibilities for the time being It may create a problem we identified, because in case of fulfillment of the job which has been left empty by the previous employee due to any reason, Maersk Line shifts the tasks to other employees. This creates a burden on them. Assigning dual responsibilities to an employee may become the reason of his/her demotivation. The workload given to someone more than his/her capacity may push them towards demotivation. As a result that employee may leave the Job which actually creates a problem for the company. Solution: It is normal that when employees get better options and more secured jobs they switch their jobs. If we see the answer of first question we asked, it shows that maersk line has issues with their employees regarding their promotions. The timing of the promoting employees is not accurate, that is why it leads employees to leave the job right before the promotion. The main problem is to put dual responsibilities on existing employee rather than promoting him/her to that post. The Maersk line lacks the succession planning; they prefer distributing the responsibilities instead of immediate fulfillment of the empty position. Because it is the best time to get benefit, by promoting the employees to fill the job and if the company doesnt find any potential candidate among the existing employees who can fill the post, then they should focus on the pool of the candidates. It ensures that the collected CVs are not useless PROBLEM: 5 Maersk Line doesnt have any well defined strategy to retain their employees who are really important for the companys growth. It usually happens in Maersk Line that employees leave the organization due to some reason; while the HR had plans for their promotion ready. Recruitment is an expensive process, and when employees leave the jobs it is actually a loss in the cost incurred in the recruitment process. SOLUTION: Hiring employees is an important stage but to keep them in your organization is also very important to be safe from the high employee turnover costs. In order to retain the employees, maersk line should create some tactics to retain their employees. These tactics may include: Offering competitive benefits: Providing your employees life insurance, health insurance and a retirement savings Give rewards and incentives Provide some small perks: Conduct stay interviews in addition to exit interviews Promote whenever possible Create open communication Get managers involved:

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Vietnamese Cuisine Essay

Vietnamese Cuisine Essay This paper shall look into the characteristics of Vietnamese cuisine, taking into account the countrys unique historical and social influences that have shaped their thinking and attitude towards food. Being a former colonial country in the Southeast Asia, Vietnam has been the context of various cultural and historical fusions (Dung and Linh 2007). The development of its cuisine from the earliest times bears the marks of new influences from other countries and tastes, helping to make a truly rich and unique collection of dishes that reflect the countrys history. As we have already noted, Vietnamese cuisine is unique for its cultural and historical influences. Vietnam is a long, narrow country on the lower portion of the Asian mainland, bordered by China, Cambodia, Laos and the Gulf of Thailand. The countrys geography has proven to be an important factor in shaping its cuisine and food production over the years. Because of the peculiar shape of their country, the natives tend to think of it as a bamboo pole with a basket of rice at each end. Geography has also lent specialties of each region a different flavour, because climate plays a big role in the availability of ingredients for different dishes. The northern cuisine is reflective of the countrys Chinese cooking heritage by specializing in dishes with soy sauce, noodle-based soups and stir-fried foods. Northern dishes are less flavourful than those found in the south or the middle portion of the country because its climate is not suitable for a large number of spices. Central Vietnam is abundant with fresh produce, and is characterized by its propensity to use extreme spices and to serve up colourful food that is reminiscent of the regions past as the seat of royalty. A traditional meal involves several complex dishes in very small portions. Finally, Southern cooking has been most heavily influenced by Thai food, such that their dishes are sweet or spicy in taste because it boasts of a climate that is suitable to a bigger number of spices. Immigrants from across the Cambodian border have also helped define the style and flavour of Southern Vietnamese cooking. This part of the country is also where the vestiges of French colonial cooking are most apparent. History, as we have already noted, plays an integral role in the development and fusion of Vietnamese food with other cultures. Almost ten centuries worth of Chinese domination in the country has left significant imprints in their cooking styles, as well as the particular dishes and the choice of ingredients. The French colonizers, on the other hand, influence the traditional Vietnamese menu by introducing various techniques of sautà ©ing. Vietnamese soups are also part of their French heritage. Other factors such as the socio-economic classes dictate on the availability of food products in the country, such that poorer people cannot afford to buy particular kinds of food because of higher prices. They are more likely to consume more rice and less meat and vegetable dishes, but this does not mean that they are enjoying their native cuisine less than the rich. The countrys dense population subsists mostly on carbohydrates in the form of rice, other grains and noodles. Vietnamese food is most popular for combining an array of vegetables, herbs and meats to come up with different meals (Dung and Linh 2007). Vietnamese cuisines usage of some some ingredients such as coconut and coconut milk is a characteristic that it shares with its Asian neighbours, but an authentic Vietnamese meal also boasts of culinary contributions from other countries, particularly China and France. It is also cooked using unique traditional styles that have been passed from generation to generation. Because of its propensity to use light ingredients and vegetables, Vietnamese food is one of the healthiest cuisines around the world today, which is a prime reason for why it is quickly becoming popular in a more health-conscious society. The diaspora of whole communities, coupled with the forces of globalization and capitalism, have also helped to propel Vietnamese cuisine to the forefront of the culinary world (Thomas 2004). Like other Asian countries, rice is a staple in the Vietnamese diet. It is grown in water paddies all around the country, but the climatic conditions at the Red River delta in the north and the Mekong river delta in the south are most favourable for this crop. Rice is the main source of carbohydrates (in the form of starch) in the peoples diet, eaten three times a day with a vegetable and/or meat main dish. Rice is also made into a variety of cakes, noodles, and desserts. Vietnam is currently the worlds third largest exporter of rice, and this commodity also holds a prime position in the countrys economy, apart from being a mainstay in the dining table. The country is still predominantly agriculture in nature, with a climate that can support a large variety of flora and fauna. Rice is usually consumed jointly by all the family members. The typical Vietnamese meal would include several main dishes, a soup and a bowl of rice for everyone. These are laid out on a table where the family members sit around and take their food from the dish platters with chopsticks-this is the only country in the Pacific and the Southeast Asian regions where people traditionally eat their meals with chopsticks. This habit is clearly one of the Chinese influences in Vietnamese cooking. The meal is usually not divided into courses and everything is served all at once. When the younger Vietnamese eat with their elders, they ask the latter to get their share of the food first as a sign of respect typical in the whole Asian region. Like the Chinese, traditional meals are also accompanied by a cup of tea, especially when there are guests around. The meal is not complete without vegetables on the side and a variety of small bowls filled with salty sauces in which the people dip their food. Vegetables are usually served as salads tossed in with beef or shrimp, in order to complement the strong flavour of the meaty main dish. The classic dip in these traditional family meals is a kind of salty fish sauce called nuoc mam. Apart from the land-grown rice, the countrys coastal and river areas provide another staple of the Vietnamese diet-fish and other aquatic species. The countrys two major rivers are an important source of seafood that help to balance the carbohydrate-rich diet of the locals. The rivers also serve as a way of transporting the goods to the local water markets, where fresh produce from the coastal villages are sold. In fact, seafood occupies a bigger portion in the Vietnamese diet than other meats such as pork, chicken or beef, which are usually consumed in smaller quantities. The Vietnamese cook their food in many ways, but unlike the Chinese, they prefer to keep the dish light by using as little oil as possible. While some viands are deep fried or stir fried, there are also a great number that are cooked by only boiling, tossing or steaming them. Vietnamese cooking is also not as rich or heavy as the curry-based dishes of Thailand, for example. The distinctive light and fresh flavour of the Vietnamese locals can be achieved by using a variety of spices and ingredients such as mint leaves, lemon grass, shrimp, native fish sauces, basi, garlic, and ginger. Cooking styles also vary from region to region, with the north preferring a lot of dishes that are slow-cooked or stir fried, whereas dishes in the south are mostly grilled or simply eaten raw. The Vietnamese are popular for being keen snackers, and they are rather fond of eating at street-side stalls or small shops specializing in a single dish, instead of the modern restaurants lining the streets in the cities. Their tradition of eating out is very strong even if most meals are cooked and eaten at home. The streets are filled with t sweet aroma of delicious snacks being cooked everywhere, because the Vietnamese are likely to stop anywhere and grab a bite whenever they feel hungry. Some of these roadside attractions are actually prestigious family restaurants that have been serving customers for many, many years. Tourists in Vietnam should, however, be a little wary of what they eat because of the presence of so many herbs and spices. People with allergies are especially susceptible because they may not know that the food they are eating contain an ingredient that they may be allergic to.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Childhood, Politics, and Satire in The Child in Time Essay -- The Chil

Childhood, Politics, and Satire in The Child in Time    For most children there is a strong desire never to grow up. This ‘Peter Pan’ complex has a large impact on most children and therefore very many adults later in life. Many of the images in The Child in Time are related to this desire, and the title is possibly directly related to the concept.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Kate is the first example of this eternal youth. She is not killed by any significant event - she does not succumb to a disease nor is she struck my an unfortunate accident - instead, during what would be a completely standard and banal trip to the supermarket she is abducted. There is not really a feeling that she has been lost for a reason; she disappears without notice or any provocation. Kate achieves this dream - the desire to be a child always, and it is as she, where others had not been so fortunate, had managed to wish hard enough to allow childhood to surrounded her so completely that she could not be touched by the exterior world. Kate becomes a child forever, as the title suggests, she exists as much, or more, as a ‘child in time’ as an actual person, living and growing. To Stephen she will always be the child she was when he last saw her, and her only growth can be achieved by superimposing on her personality a ste reotyped caricature of what a child her age would be - a child hoping for a walkie-talkie set for her birthday - without her own eccentricities, or personal characteristics.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When Stephen tries to recapture Kate, in the scene in the primary school, he too is overwhelmed by childhood. Without thinking he is drawn into a lesson and becomes a stereotyped student until he is able to break out of this strange reality and return to ... ...f Nuclear apocalypse without moving, except for another drink. He does seem actively very eager not to address his unhappiness at Kate’s abduction, even to the lengths that he takes up Arabic and Tennis. Both Tennis and Arabic, however, seem associated with youth - tennis as a game played whilst still young, and active - though Stephen finds he is not really active enough to play; and Arabic, which he views as to be learnt in a very scholastic manner - he calls his tutor be his surname, and does not speak to him about anything but the lesson at hand.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   McEwan portrays childhood as a very powerful and important force, and The Child In Time focuses on someone for whom this is especially potent. He seems to try to highlight different views of childhood, through time and between political theories, using The Child In Time as a reasonable successful satire.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Seeing Myself in Waiting for Godot :: Waiting for Godot Essays

Seeing Myself in Waiting for Godot Some people wondered why in high school my favorite book was Waiting for Godot, a drama described on the title page as â€Å"a two-act play in which nothing happens twice.† In fact, my liking a play that does not portray a series of connected incidents telling a story but instead presents a pattern of images showing bewildered people in an incomprehensible universe initially baffled me too, as my partiality was more felt than thought. But then I read a piece by the critic Martin Esslin, who articulated my feelings. He wrote in â€Å"The Search for the Self† that throughout our lives we always wait for something, and Godot simply represents the objective of our waiting—an event, a thing, a person, death. It is in the act of waiting that we experience the flow of time in its purest most evident form. (31) I realized that I was seventeen in high school passively waiting for something amazing to happen to me just like Vladimir and Estragon. I also realized that experiencing time flowing by unproductively was not for me regardless of how â€Å"pure† that experience might be. At several points in the play, Estragon states that he wants to leave, but Vladimir always responds, â€Å"We can’t . . . we’re waiting for Godot† (8). Neither one knows why the wait nor who Godot is or looks like, and they both admit, when asked by Pozzo why they mistook him for Godot, that â€Å"we hardly know him at all† (20). Yet, they wait for him instead of looking within themselves for meaning in their lives. They even turn to close-at-hand sources about them to provide reasons for their wait: from inside a hat or a boot (8). But, as Lucky points out, the â€Å"reasons [are] unknown† and always will be (28). Therefore, their external search is pointless to give life me aning. Or put another way, Vladimir and Estragon wait endlessly for life to begin. As simple as it is, I see myself in them, waiting for someone or something to bring me meaning, to guide me, to spark my life. The existentialist ideas behind much of Waiting for Godot cut to the quick, as I, too, struggle through life trying to achieve some sort of purposeful meaning (Bryce). Like everyone else, I am a victim of waiting and going nowhere fast. As embarrassing as it is to me now, in high school, I ached as I searched to fill an empty part of me with love or true friendship, and at last I found him! But rather than acting on what I felt for him, I sat there and waited, hoping that he would notice me, the perfect soul mate.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Key Skill Essay

Ensure your work is accurate and clear and is saved appropriately  You need to have achieved Key Skills 9 and 10. In addition your teacher needs to have verified that the work is both accurate and clear. This means they need to have supplied a written statement saying that the work is accurate. They cannot do this is there are any mistakes so check the work clearly. Advantages and Disadvantages of using ICT for this task  Demonstrate knowledge of how IT can help you in your work and be able to compare your use of IT with other methods  You need to write about how IT helped you to produce your presentation. This might include spell-check making sure that the words were spelt correctly, or the use of cut and paste to move objects around the page to try out different layouts.  The second part of this Key Skill needs you to write about how else you might have done this presentation. You need to compare creating computer generated presentation with another method – maybe using a pen and pencil. The advantages and disadvantages of using IT  You need to list at least two advantages and two disadvantage of using IT to write the story. Example You might have used a pen and paper. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a pen and paper to write the story against using a computer?  You must make sure that you have covered both the advantages and the disadvantages. Example  Disadvantages might include cost of hardware software and peripherals or time spent learning how to use the programs needed to search, find and use information  The Importance of Copyright and Confidentiality  When it is necessary to observe copyright or confidentiality  You need to write a few lines about copyright – what it is and how it affects you and the pictures you have found on the internet and CD/Clipart. You can present screen shots from the site showing copyright information or copies of emails sent and receiving permission to use graphics, text and photographs You can write about confidentiality – what it is and how it does/does not affect you. You could refer to the lack of personal information and the fact that the Data Protection Act (1998) does not affect you.  Example  You have not used pictures of yourself or other young people which could identify them  Error Handling and Virus Protection  How to identify errors and their causes You will need to show, using screenshots, of errors and how to solve them. This can show the use of the office assistant, or searching for a web page that returns a not known error. It could be a picture of the spell check – identifying a spelling error. How to minimise risks from viruses  You will need to provide a description of how to avoid getting viruses from floppy disks or from Internet downloads, including the purpose and use of virus checkers and how they prevent and remove a virus.  A couple of paragraphs are all that is required. Health and Safety Matters Work safely and take care of equipment, avoid losing information and know how to get help when dealing with errors  You will need to write a paragraph about:  Taking care of equipment e.g. storage of disks:  You must not put your disks near a magnet as this will delete the content, not throwing them around  Avoiding loss of information e.g. use of AutoSave or backup. Saving information onto disks as well as the account at school  Obtaining help e.g. on-line help, telephone support or teacher assistance.   I could not work out how to adjust the margins so I used the online help (screenshots here†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦)  You need to show (through screenshots) that you have backed up your files. How to work safely and minimise health risks  You need to write a short paragraph about two health and two safety risks involved in using computers.  You may write about the use of anti-glare screens and taking a break from using the computer to rest your eyes or wrists. You may write about repetitive strain injuries from not having the correct keyboard and backache from not having the correct chair. Think about the rules in your computer room – not drinking in a computer room, trailing cables or bags in the aisle.

Corruption and Neoliberalism in the Philippines Essay

Despite this year’s onslaught of devastating earthquakes, factional rebel sieges, and most recently, record breaking typhoons, the Philippines is doing surprisingly well for itself. In fact, The Economist Intelligence Unit reports that though the wreckage caused by last weeks Supertyphoon Haiyan will likely slow GDP somewhat, economic damage will not be significant, the Eastern Visayas region accounting for only two per cent of the countrys GDP. Economically, at least, the Philippines has had good year: the first half of 2013 saw GDP growth at 7. 3 percent, the highest growth rate in Asia; it saw seen record foreign direct investment levels; moved itself from low-income to middle-income country in the World Bank country database; and for the first time, became a creditor rather than debtor to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) (Desierto, The Economist). Nevertheless, the poverty rate remains at 27. percent with little movement in the past five years, unemployment is at seven percent, and underemployment continues to hover around twenty percent (The Economist Intelligence Unit). Despite record growth levels in the Philippines, large numbers of Filipinos still struggle to find employment and meet their basic needs. Foreign Policy and Fund for Peace have named the Philippines as one of their top 60 failed states in the 2013 Failed States Report. Ranking 59 out of 178 countries, the Philippines scored a slightly improved but critical 82. 8 (â€Å"Failed States†). Five of its worst scores occurred in: security apparatus, including issues like riots and fatalities from rebel activity; factionalized elites, including power struggles and flawed elections; group grievance, including iolence between groups; state legitimacy, including corruption, level of government effectiveness, and illicit economies; and demographic pressures, including population growth, natural disasters, and disease (â€Å"The Indicators†). The aftermath of recent disasters and rebel conflict are likely to raise these rates for the coming report, bringing the Philippines closer to the brink of failure. Why, in the midst of unprecedented economic growth, is the country faring so poorly in terms of development indicators like poverty and political stability? Mainstream development discourse assures that rapid economic growth leads to evelopment and poverty reduction, but this has yet to be the case for Filipinos. In a previous paper I discuss the issue of the accuracy, reliability, and focus of poverty measurements and the development discourse itself, but there are larger factors at play as well. In this paper, I discuss how the history of corruption and neoliberalism, two contested but highly influential issues, have negatively impacted development as a whole in the Philippines and perpetuated the poverty of its population. According to a recent poll by the online periodical The Philippine Star, an verwhelming majority of the Filipino online public viewed corruption as the single largest cause of poverty in the Philippines. Revisiting Transparency International’s statistics in the Corruption Perceptions Index, Filipinos scored their country a 34 on a scale of 0-100, with O being highly corrupt and 100 being very clean (2012). Personal experience recalls an overt general mistrust in government officials having the people’s interests at heart, and a series of news reports detailing impeachments and scandals related to graft and corruption within both government and ongovernmental organizations from 2010 to 2012. Despite being an independent democracy since the late 1940s (the Marcos regime’s dictatorial break notwithstanding), the Philippines has suffered corrupt government officials in almost every presidency, most notably those of Marcos, Estrada and Arroyo (The Economist Intelligence Unit). According to Dr. Diane Desierto in an op-ed calling out to current President Benigno Aquino, corruption has strained the Philippine economy for decades, and the unrecoverable public funds lost to corruption at the cost of national investment is a national outrage. Most recently in the news is the Pork Barrel Scandal, where President Aquino and the ombudsmen have charged 3 senators, 2 former lawmakers, and a businesswoman for misusing over $200 million in state funds (Hookway). Pork Barrel is a state allocation of funds set aside for senators to use on development projects of their choice, of which the president says the accused used for fabricated project proposals to take personal kickbacks. Public protests against the scandal have been massive, and the people are calling for not only the eradication of the Pork Barrel fund itself, but of the president’s own spending fund as well. President Aquino faces the dilemma of upholding his strict anticorruption agenda, appealing to the public, and maintaining support of powerful lawmakers and congressmen (Hookway). James Hookway argues that Aquinds decision on the scandal will heavily determine foreign investor confidence in the Philippines, influencing the path of the countrys development. Indeed most development professionals agree that corruption and bad governance are inversely related to the development of a country. The worst indicators in the Philippine Failed States Report outwardly suggest governance issues re a threat to the state and a major cause of internal violence and conflict. Good governance has been the recent focus of many World Bank projects, the group stating that, â€Å"a capable and accountable state creates opportunities for poor people, provides better services, and improves development outcomes† (qtd. in Bello, â€Å"Is Corruption the Cause? â€Å"). Jeffrey Sachs names governance failures as a top factor in a countrys economic stagnation and decline; and William Easterly argues that bad governments, not a poverty trap, are sole culprits in the economic decline of a country (Sachs 57; Easterly 43). Easterlys stance on corruption is tough: continuing to provide aid to countries with corrupt governments is inefficient, as most countries with bad governments fare significantly worse even with aid than do countries with good governments (42). In the Philippines, all signs in mainstream discourse point to corruption as the major reason for continuing poverty despite high economic growth. Yet there is a small but growing number of people arguing otherwise. According to activists like Walden Bello, while corruption is detrimental to the trust and moral bonds of a democracy, it is not the principal cause of poverty. Between 1990 and 000, he argues, the Philippines and China reported the same levels of corruption; yet China grew by 10. 3 percent, while the Philippines grew by only 3. 3 percent (â€Å"Is Corruption the Cause? â€Å"). It is not corruption, he says, but the negative effects of neoliberal adjustment policies that have maintained poverty levels at the rate they are today (Bello). As Peet and Hartwick explain, neoliberalism was the economic response to Keynesian economics and the failures of Import Substitution Industrialization (IS’) that took hold of development discourse in the 1970s with the rise of the Reagan and Thatcher administrations. Influenced by Hayek’s theories, neoliberalism favored free markets and minimal government involvement outside of controlling interest rates and money supply (Peet 78-83). In response to the economic crises brought on by ISI in the 70s and 80s, developed nations and international organizations (10s) came up with the Washington Consensus, a list of policy reforms and conditions for debtor countries to the IMF to follow in order to receive loans. Reforms included fiscal discipline, decreased public expenditures, tax reform, low interest rates, trade liberalization and deregulation, privatization of public goods, and an increase in oreign direct investment (FDI) (Peet 84). According to Walden Bello, neoliberalism has become a hegemony of economic paradigm, especially in the Philippines. After the forced exile of Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquinds rise to power, Bello says the country was more than primed for neoliberal structural adjustment policies when it turned to the World Bank during an economic crisis in the 80s (â€Å"Neoliberalism†). A number of factors led the Philippines to strongly adhere to neoliberal policies. One, technocrats close to former President Aquino were highly influenced by Reagan, Thatcher, and the free-market economic paradigm. Two, the University of the Philippines School of Economics published its anti-Marcos White Paper on the Philippine Economy, capturing the popular mood of the time that Marcos was proof that the state had become subject to ‘crony capitalism’ and was an inefficient source of development progress. Three, international events like the collapse of European socialism, the successful revitalization of U. S. and British economies, and the rise of newly industrialized Asian countries (though Bello argues these countries’ successes bore more from protectionism than neoliberalism) inspired the Philippine elites and middle class, who had the most influence over olicy discourse (â€Å"Neoliberalism†). With ISI and Keynesian economics shrouded by bad memories of the Marcos regime, and the Communist partys preoccupation with the anti-fascist struggle, Bello states there were no credible alternatives for the country but neoliberalism. In the 90s the Ramos administration kicked structural adjustment into high gear, being one of the few administrations in the region to fully adhere to IMF conditions. Focal to Philippine adjustment was massive tariff liberalization and deregulation to increase FDI and speculative investment, as well as a furious signing of multilateral ariff agreements with the WTO, ASEAN, the IMF, and the United Nations (Bello). The economy grew 4 percent during Ramos’ presidency, until the Asian Crisis hit the Philippines in 1997. Suddenly, $4 6 billion in speculative investments tlew out ot the country, triggering a downward slide into economic recession and stagnation. With the WTO Agreement in Agriculture, the Philippines went from a food net exporter to a net importer (particularly in rice, a main staple of the local agriculture sector), sparking a crisis of food insecurity and a loss of Job security in the agricultural industry. The Philippines also saw its local textile and manufacturing industries fail: â€Å"by the early years of this decade, the countrys textile industry had shrunk from 200 to less than 10 firms† (Bello, â€Å"Neoliberalism†). Loss of local industry was supposed to be bolstered by consumer welfare and increased spending as foreign investment brought diverse and stable employment; but this has not been the case for the Philippines; rather unemployment and underemployment rates have remained at a consistent high. Despite this and recent protests against globalization in the country, neoliberalism emains the central focus of economic policy in the Philippines (Bello). Ligaya Lindio McGovern also feels neoliberal policies and unequal globalization have been detrimental to the welfare of the Philippines, not only from a macroeconomic standpoint, but from a micropolitical level as well. According to McGovern, neoliberal policies implemented in the Philippines have only proven to benefit foreign actors and investors, perpetuating poverty in the country and detrimentally affecting the welfare of women and youth in particular (2). Food insecurity due to restricted agricultural access in world markets and an increased ependency on imports (coupled with fixed high prices to maximize profits) hurts women as they are mainly responsible for the nutritional welfare of the family. Privatization of water and social services puts foreign control over formerly local businesses, limiting the poor’s access to health care and clean water. Foreign influence over industry has led to the contractualization of labor, meaning short- term, low pay work that puts workers in a weak bargaining position. This has led to a massive loss of Jobs, setting preconditions for migration as Filipinos (mostly female domestic workers) go abroad to find work. This has subsequently led to an increased vulnerability in Filipino women for exploitation, downward mobility, and loneliness, and has been a root cause of the rise of human trafficking that has plagued the Philippines in recent years (McGovern 5-14). Ligaya argues that it is neoliberalism and the one-sided distribution of globalization-not corruption-that has led to a rise in militant groups such as GABRIELA, Migrante International, and the New People’s Army, all of whom fght against foreign and American imperialism through economic policy (McGovern 21). In recent years, the ideas of Bello and McGovern have taken hold, particularly hrough development economists like Easterly. While lamenting bad governments as a source of gross inefficiency in foreign aid appropriation, Easterly also speaks strongly against the macroeconomic, universally applicable solutions to poverty offered up by neoliberal policies. He argues such policies are too big and too utopian; with too much distance between principals at the top and implementers at the bottom to provide proper feedback and accountability, too much collective responsibility to create incentive, and too many large, nonspecific tasks bogging down change agents on the field to be effective (14-18). What, then, in light of both arguments as either corruption or neoliberalism as the major source ot poverty and inequali i the Philippines to do to resolve its gap between economic and social development? For Bello, the administration must rid itself of the neoliberal hegemonic stronghold and adopt alternative economic policies that focus on local empowerment of the people and permanent national employment. â€Å"Getting over neoliberalism,† he says, involves â€Å"†¦ getting beyond the worship of numbers that often acts as a shroud to the real, beyond the scientism that masks itself as a science† (Bello, â€Å"Neoliberalism†). McGovern advocates a similar, though more drastic route: a new Philippine state altogether that creates national alternatives to the neoliberal agenda (21). Like Stiglitz argues in his book, McGovern feels that true globalization has never been experienced, as powerful, industrialized countries controlling the flow of goods maintain protectionist policies in their own states while pushing for liberalization that benefits them in poorer countries (3; Stiglitz 62-101). In order for globalization to function, protectionist policies must also be advocated in industrializing countries, if not to the extent that ISI brought them in other regions. Proponents of free trade and economic development, on the other hand, argue that the Philippines must maintain its rapid GDP growth, continue to improve speculative investment climate, implement a broader tax base, and increase foreign ownership of its economic sectors (Elkan). In other words, institutions like the IMF continue to push neoliberal policy as an effective means for development. Increasing speculative investment and foreign direct investment means combatting corruption and bad governance for most proponents of the dominant discourse; the corruption scandals that have haunted the Philippines for decades have been a indrance to a thriving economy and led to increased political violence, and must be dealt with in order to see a reduction of poverty in the country. Ultimately, though, it is difficult to see how focusing on either one factor will lead to any real improvement in social welfare without also addressing the other; the two are both too entrenched in Philippine government. These are not dichotomous factors, rather they are deeply intertwined and coexistent in influencing poverty and social instability. Personal experience lends insight into instances where both corruption and neoliberal effects on society were clear. With a stipend affording me middle-class status in my neighborhood, I still could not afford to buy rice from the local farmers, and could barely afford the only slightly cheaper imported rice. During election time, the Congresswoman led a mass campaign to expand the main highway, only to abandon the project post-elections, leaving the road broken and difficult to traverse. Viewing development as a multifaceted and interconnected process comprising both macro and micropolitical elements, resolutions to development issues must also be viewed as such (Sen). Poverty reduction and development in the Philippines must nvolve both the eradication of rampant corruption and alternative options for neoliberal policies, which have largely failed the country outside of real GDP. Additionally, the government must focus its efforts on the needs of its people, rather than its own personal agenda, according to Desierto. In light of the recent typhoon and previous natural disasters, she says, â€Å"not a single administration has ever committed to making an integrated natural disaster prevention, remediation, and reconstruction system our countrys highest national security priority’ (â€Å"Corruption, Climate, and Congress†). Every administration nas promised he eradication ot corruption, though. Thus, it seems that the administration has allowed foreign institutions and its own political agenda to distract itself from the true needs of its people, which lie at the core of development. The key to poverty reduction then, in the context of the Philippines, is the increased and direct participation of Filipinos in decision-making for future economic and social policies.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Communication with Children Essay

In every aspect of life, at work and at home, our communication with those people around us influences and underpins our relationships with them, so developing positive attitudes and communication is essential to develop positive relationships. Getting to know people and showing interest in them and what they have to say is important to building respectful relationships. Remembering names, listening to what people have to say, being considerate of people and their views, all add up to positive relationship building. We work with adults where effective communication and trust will ensure the safety and well-being of the children we are caring for. It is essential that any information regarding any child is passed to the correct person especially if there is any cause for concern. Communication with an adult may be verbal only, but if there is a genuine concern for an aspect of learning or social or personal safety of a child, it will be backed up by written evidence. Discussions with our peers are important to build relationships of respect and trust. A teacher may have concerns about a child and might discuss this with her teaching assistant who may back up her concerns with her own observations. Being friendly and approachable will help encourage communication with children, young people and adults and always acting with honesty and fairness will develop positive relationships and respect. Communicating with your peers at work is likely to be quite different to how you would communicate with them in a social situation. Whilst at work it is important to be professional, however that doesn’t mean you can’t have a sense of humour! Quite often the person you need to speak to isn’t available so it may be that you will have to leave them a note, either in their pigeon hole or on their desk, and then it can be discussed in more detail when you are both available. We communicate in many different ways to many different people at work, we communicate with teachers about the children and what different resources are needed in the classroom, we communicate with parents  sensitively about their children, we communicate with the office staff regarding stationary supplies and resources, we communicate with the kitchen staff regarding lunch and the caretaker regarding repairs that we may have observed that need attending to or some other instructions. All these communications are important to get the best results and each may be approached differently. It is important to understand the correct approach to ensure the most positive outcome in each situation. Cultural differences may affect communication as misunderstandings can occur so it is important that when communicating with people from different cultural backgrounds you make yourself understood and be respectful of their culture. When communicating with children it must be remembered that children do not have the same understanding as adults and will take everything as it is said and will not interpret signals or things unsaid or assumed. Not all children will understand humour, although some will, so it is important to speak clearly to children and maybe repeat what you have said. It is also a good idea to ask them to repeat back to you what you have said if it is important that they have understood you, this way there will be no room for confusion. Also, get down to their level; they will feel more comfortable talking to you and not so intimidated. The age of a child is important to take into consideration. Very young children may not respond to humour as they may not understand. However an older child may respond positively to humour as it can relax them. Always adapt your language to the age of the child and speak clearly. The context of the communication may hugely influence how you might communicate. If the child has done something well or positive, just a big smile and thumbs up from across the classroom can communicate very effectively. Equally, a disapproving look and firm shake of the head may communicate across a classroom when a child has done something wrong. Tone of voice is important to portray your communication too. If what you are telling them is serious it must be delivered with a serious voice, equally praise should be delivered with an excited and happy tone and expression. In  general communication with children, they respond best to happy, excitable voices, so unless the message is serious, that is the tone I think is best to stick with! When communicating with children there are other things that may have to be taken into consideration. It may be that English is not their first language so extra care will be needed to ensure they have understood you. The child may have a sensory impairment, so you may have to speak facing them, slowly and clearly and using your hands where able. The child may have a speech, language or communication impairment so again you would have to speak to them in much the same way, speaking clearly and slowly and repeating instructions and asking them to repeat back to you so that you know they have understood instructions. Their cognitive abilities may be poor so you may have to adapt your communication to take into account their concentration span and focus or coordination. Also, if a child is sad you must be sensitive to that and be reassuring and comforting. A child may be agitated or angry and then you must be calming. If a child has cultural differences those differences must be taken into account and treated respectfully. Communication with adults may include body language and gestures that may go unobserved by children. Adults will also interpret nuances in tone of voice that children may not pick up on. Therefore it is more important to explain exactly what you are saying to children. You may not have to be as direct with adults. When managing disagreements with children it is important that the child believes he/she is being listened to and treated fairly. When I’m dealing with playground disputes I always listen to both sides of the story and get the whole picture. We then talk it through and decide what would have been a better way of dealing with their conflict and either or both apologises and we have a clean slate and fresh start. When dealing with disagreements between young people a similar approach can be taken but with a higher language level. Disputes may arise at work where  adults have differing opinions; it is important to listen to an alternative point of view and consider where there is common ground. Talking things through thoroughly and being open to an alternative approach is vital. If there is total disagreement and no solution can be found then a manager or head teacher will have to be involved.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Process Design Matrix Essay

Process Management is a group of activities that involves planning, monitoring and, results of the process. It is a skill that includes techniques, knowledge, and report and improves processes in order to meet customer service goals and requirements, in turn for a profit. Table 1A describes the product flow matrix. †There are three main approaches to delivering services; they include the production-line approach, the self-service approach, and the personal-attention approach† (Jacobs & Chase, 2011). The purpose of this assignment is to recognize the appropriate design approach for a product or service. The three contrasting approaches are production line, self-service and personal attention. The first approach is a production line. â€Å"The value of this philosophy is that it overcomes many problems inherent in the concept of service itself. That is, service implies subordination or subjugation of the server to the served; manufacturing, on the other hand, avoids this connotation because it focuses on things rather than people† (Jacobs & Chase, 2011). An example of production line would be McDonald’s. The service delivery is treated much like a manufacturing. Instead of possessing different equipment and stations, they would focus on having one large grill for one person to cook the burgers, a dressing station to prepare the burgers, a fryer where one person would make French fires, and a counter where customers place their orders. The second approach is a self-service, proposes. It means â€Å"that the service process can be enhanced by having the customer take a greater role in the production of the service† (Jacobs & Chase, 2011). Self Service is an effective way for the company to save money. As in the example of McDonald’s, there are some restaurants where customers can go up to the counter and place their orders themselves by using a screen touch computer. This comes in handy, because it lets the customer tailor their order to their liking. Other examples of self-service is an ATM machine cuts the cost of a teller. The customer can go to any ATM machine and deposit or withdraw money at any time of the day. Other examples would be IKEA, bikes,  furniture or toys, where the customer can assemble the final production bringing the cost of shipping and the actual item to a lower price. The third approach in the service design is personal attention. Some companies for example, a department store, a doctor’s office or information technology support will try to develop a relationship between the clerk and customer. Some companies at end of the year will send Christmas cards for their customers or a coupon for their next purchase. This is a good way to keep in touch with their customers and in addition, give it that â€Å"personal touch†. In the Process Design Matrix â€Å"the formats by which a facility is arranged are defined by the general pattern of work flow; there are five basic structures (project, work center, manufacturing cell, assembly line, and continuous process† (Jacobs & Chase, 2011). The job shop approach focuses on having functions or equipment in a group. An example would be a machine shop that would make parts for local companies, such as boats; they can even specialize on parts for planes. Toyota Company follows this approach since they have different machine shops so they can create different parts of a car. One area can specialize in building the hood while the other can be cutting customize parts to assemble the car. The second approach is called the assembly line. This creates a similar and constant process on the assembly line in which it follows steps. Toyota Company follows this approach. Each worker has his or her own task and focus on that task. There are stations that will install the tires, another station will specialize on the electrical aspect, and another station will finish of the car by adding a nice coat of paint. When each station finishes their section, it moves on to the next station so it can get worked on. The last approach is the Continuous process. â€Å"This approach is used for products that are similar to the assembly line. The only difference is that  the production flow is continuous like with liquids† (Jacobs & Chase, 2011). Some common continuous processes are oil refining, chemicals, and fertilizers. This type of approach sometimes operates 24 hours a day and workers are in rotating shifts. The product process matrix helps industries understand what their options are especially regarding a manufacturing function. Some firms can have certain traits that belong in the matrix, depending on what life cycle the product is on. By applying this concept into their strategic planning, industries are able to think outside the box and gain competitive advantage. In addition, using the matrix allows manufacturing managers to get involved more in the planning process so they can share their prospects and decision more effectively. Product–process matrix Table 1A – Jacobs, F. R. & Chase, R. (2011). Operations and Supply Chain Management (13th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Reference Jacobs, F. R. & Chase, R. (2011). Operations and Supply Chain Management (13th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin. I do not have page numbers sited because I am unable to download the textbook. I have no problem with reading it through the OLS, I just cannot see page numbers.