Monday, September 30, 2019
Different philosophers have different ideas and theories. This has always been true. In this course, we looked at a number of different philosophers, including Russell, Christian, and Wittgenstein. Each has a unique perspective. Russell looks at philosophy as a very broad field, while others donÃ¢â¬â¢t. His definition places philosophy as ideas which fall between science and religion, which he says means it gets attacked from all sides. He also believes that religion has given answers which are too definite without any proof, and science tells people only what is actually true, while philosophy examines questions, to determine what might be true. Christian agrees in some areas. He, too, looks at philosophy as a way to examine questions, to figure out what is possibly true. He extends on this to say that one must also look at the relationships between ideas. He does not mention philosophy as having anything at all to do with religion and science, at least not in the way that Russell does. Wittgenstein believe something much more simple than either Russell or Christian. He looks at philosophy as Ã¢â¬Å"untying the knotsÃ¢â¬ in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking. He looks at philosophy as answering questions, much like the others, but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t describe it in terms of religion and science like Russell, nor does he outline several different points as does Christian. Instead, he looks at philosophy as simply a way of thinking in order to understand what is going on (which he is careful to explain does not mean it is simple). In general, all these philosophers agree that philosophy is a way of thinking and of answering questions. However, they each disagree exactly where it came from and how it relates to the rest of the world. That is where philosophy is open to continued discussion.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
It was 9. 00pm on a dark and cold night. Michael, Simon, Steffanie and Gemma were walking through the woods. Ã¢â¬Å"God it's a bit dark here init! Ã¢â¬ said Steff as they were trudging through the dirt and the tall, dark trees. Ã¢â¬Å"God you're a wimp! Ã¢â¬ said Mike as he came up behind her and scared her half to death. Steff grabbed his hand so tightly you could nearly see his face turn purple. Ã¢â¬Å"GuysÃ¢â¬ ¦..! Ã¢â¬ shouted gem a few feet behind them, Ã¢â¬Å"I think we've lost si! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What do you mean LOST him? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He was right behind us! Ã¢â¬ said a scared and worried steff, Ã¢â¬Å"you know si, he's probably just being stupidÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"yeh well it isn't very funny is it! Si, Si, give it up now, it isn't funnyÃ¢â¬ They kept walking while shouting him. Ã¢â¬Å"Guys, he's bin gone for nearly an hour now, where is he? Ã¢â¬ gem said! They kept walking and finally came to the end of the woods; Steff was really worrying about him now. Ã¢â¬Å"I thought I said to stick together but noÃ¢â¬ ¦ That's too much to ask isn't it! We can't do anything without someone going missing or something going wrong! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Try his mobileÃ¢â¬ gem pulled out her mobile and started ringing him, Ã¢â¬Å"it's switched off! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"GreatÃ¢â¬ ¦ just bloody great! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Si! Ã¢â¬ screamed steff. It was at this point that everyone was starting to get worried. What if something has happened to him? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Will you shut up; you're giving me a headache! Look he said he was going to hide in the woods and try and scare you but he's been gone way too long now! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Be careful, the last thing we need is to loose another one of us! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ill b fine! Ã¢â¬ Mike set off back inside the woods. It was even darker now as 2 hours had nearly passed. Ã¢â¬Å"What happens if we never see him again, I mean he could have been killed or anything! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Steff!!!! Will you shut up, he will be fine, he's very much alive just lost or something! Stop exaggerating and calm down! Ã¢â¬ Mike came walking back towards us; there was no sign of Si! Ã¢â¬Å"WellÃ¢â¬ ¦ where is he? Please tell me you found him! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, ive looked everywhere but there was no sign of him, all I found was this! Ã¢â¬ he put his hand in his jacket pocket and pulled out Si's phone and wallet! Ã¢â¬Å"Oh my god! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Something must have happened to him,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He will turn up, don't worry, you know what Si is like! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Its getting late, we gota tell someone! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"LookÃ¢â¬ ¦ I aint leaving until we have found him! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Im not giving up, he wouldn't give up on us! Ã¢â¬ It was at this point that everyone was panicking and didn't know what to do. Ring his mum; ask her if she's heard from him! Ã¢â¬ Gem pulled out her phone and started to ring, there was no answer, Ã¢â¬Å"I think they must be out or something because they aren't answering. Ã¢â¬ We've got half an hour to find him! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If he doesn't turn up we'll just have to hope he's turned up at home or something! Ã¢â¬ They all stayed together and kept searching but they didn't find him, it was now 11. 30pm and to it was too dark and too late to keep looking for him. Ã¢â¬Å"I think we should get goingÃ¢â¬ They all started walking up the street Ã¢â¬Å"I will try ringing his parents again when I get in, if I hear anything I will let u know! Mike said as he was walking down his drive, Ã¢â¬Å"okÃ¢â¬ ¦ I hope he is ok! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"See ya tomorrow! Ã¢â¬ It was a very long night for everyone, they didn't have a clue where Simon was or where he had gone, Steff was all up night as she couldn't sleep as she was too worried about Simon. Every time she looked at the clock just an hour had passed, 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock, 4 o'clock and yet still no one had heard anything about Si. The next day Steff rang Mike to see if he had heard anything. Ã¢â¬Å"No I haven't, I rang his parents again this morning and they said they haven't heard from him and he never came home last night! they thought he had they said that they were worried so they have rang around and nobody has seen him so they rang the police to file a missing persons report so I think they have gone out looking for him! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What exactly did you say to them, how did they take it? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well I spoke to his mum and I told her we were just messing about and we were just playing, then we lost Si and we went looking for him but couldn't find him, she was pretty upset, she started crying and I didn't know what to say, She said that if he's not found by within the next few hours could we give in a statement so I said yes? Ã¢â¬Å"Oh my god, what happens if we never see him again, it's my entire fault! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Steff just calm down, we don't know what's happened yet, we just got to wait and see, it isn't your fault, it isn't any of our faults, we just got to stay calm and stick together! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I hope he's ok or I will never forgive myself! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Look I'm really sorry but I've got to go now, a police car has just pulled up outside my house! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ok, what are you going to say? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm gonna be honest and tell them everything! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ok ring me later and tell me how it's gone, tra! Mike opened the door to the two police officers and they came in and sat down. With the look on the officers faces, Mike started to worry, Ã¢â¬Å"Were very sorry to deliver this news to you but I'm afraid we found Simons body! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We found it in a black bag amongst some bushes deep in the woods, were very sorry! Ã¢â¬ Mike paused and didn't say anything, he was completely taken back. Ã¢â¬Å"God!! I didn't think he was dead, when did you find him, we were only having a bit of fun!! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Were very sorry! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I think his parents may want to speak to you shortly! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Err err yeh that's ok! Ã¢â¬ the police officers got up and walked out! Ã¢â¬Å"
Saturday, September 28, 2019
A Separate Peace Essay Essay Topic: Literature , A Separate Peace Choose cite format: APA MLA Harvard Chicago ASA IEEE AMA Haven't found the essay you want? Get your custom sample essay for only $13.90/page ? In the book, A Separate Peace, the author, John Knowles, writes to us a novel about war, but happens to focus more on the war within the human heart. This novel tells a story of two boysÃ¢â¬â¢ co-dependency during World War Two, and explores the difficulties with understanding the self during adolescence. Identity is complicated enough as the narrator, Gene Forrester, enters adulthood in a time of war, but a difficult friendship with a fellow student and rival leads to a further confusion of identity. Early in the book, the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship is charged by GeneÃ¢â¬â¢s jealousy and hate of PhineasÃ¢â¬â¢ leadership. However, after Phineas falls from the tree, Gene ejects his darker feelings from himself and turns their relationship in a new direction where co-dependency, instead of envy, drives it. The central relationship between Gene and Finny, involves a troublesome search to authorize identity outside of co-dependency. Gene Forrester is a boy with many conflicts that he must face throughout his high school year. The most significant of these troubles is, without a doubt, GeneÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle with his own identity. At first Gene is displeased with his personality, or lack thereof. He envies his best friend, PhineasÃ¢â¬â¢ (FinnyÃ¢â¬â¢s), wit, charm, and leadership. Throughout the book, Gene repeatedly finds himself acting like his friend, a transformation occurring that Gene is unaware of. There are a number of significant transformations within this story. Phineas is transformed from an active athlete into a cripple after his accident and then sets out to transform Gene in his place. This change is the beginning process by which GeneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity begins to blur into FinnyÃ¢â¬â¢s, a transformation symbolized by GeneÃ¢â¬â¢s putting on FinnyÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes one evening soon after the accident. Ã¢â¬Å"I washed the traces off me and then put on a pair of chocolate brown slacks, a pair in which Phineas had been particularly critical of when he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t wearing them, and a blue flannel shirtÃ¢â¬ (78). This is the first time in the book that we notice just how much Gene is codependent on Phineas, even when he is gone. From this point on, Gene and Phineas come to depend on each other for psychological support. Gene playing sports because Phineas cannot, Ã¢â¬Å"Listen, pal, if I canÃ¢â¬â¢t play sports, youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to play them for meÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ this allows Finny to train Gene to be the athlete that Finny himself cannot be. This training seems to be a path for Phineas simply to live vicariously through Gene. But Gene actively welcomes his attempt, for just as Finny acquires inner strength through Gene, Gene also finds happiness in losing the person he dislikes, himself, into the person he truly likes, Phineas. Ã¢â¬ ¦and I lost part of myself to him then, and a soaring sense of freedom revealed that this must have been my purpose from the first: to become part of Phineas. Ã¢â¬ (77) In this way, the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship becomes a perfect illustration of co-dependency, with each feeling off of and becoming fulfilled by, the other. This newfound co-dependency begins the evolution of the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ individual identities. Finny knows himself throughout the book, and is comfortable in his own skin, at least at first. After his fall, he becomes more withdrawn and tends to hide his true feelings. He seems to lose himself as the book progresses. The innocence and general good nature that defined him early on is lost in later chapters, as he continually deludes himself as to GeneÃ¢â¬â¢s true intentions. Gene, on the other hand, hides his true identity from Phineas and the others through most of the novel. Yet Gene truly reveals himself at several key points such as pushing Finny from the tree. The boys are living in their own secret illusions that World War Two is a mere conspiracy created by old men and continuing to believe that Gene, Finny through him, will go to the Olympics and that the world canÃ¢â¬â¢t change their dreams. The boys are refusing to develop their own goals and responsibilities without each other. Not even FinnyÃ¢â¬â¢s death, though it separates them physically, can truly disentangle GeneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity from PhineasÃ¢â¬â¢. Gene feels as though FinnyÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral is his own. In a way, the funeral is indeed GeneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. So much of Gene is intermixed with Phineas that it is difficult to imagine one boy existing without the other. The entire novel becomes GeneÃ¢â¬â¢s recollection of building his own identity, culminating in his return to Devon years later, where he is finally able to come to terms with what heÃ¢â¬â¢s done. During the time I was with him, Phineas created an atmosphere in which I continued now to live, a way of sizing up the world with erratic and entirely personal reservations, letting itÃ¢â¬â¢s rocklike facts sift through and be accepted only a little at a time, only as much as he could assimilate without a sense of chaos and lossÃ¢â¬ (194). It is perhaps only his understanding that Phineas alone has no enemy that allows the older Gene to reestablish a separate identity. One that is inferior to PhineasÃ¢â¬â¢. A Separate Peace. (2017, Jan 26).
Friday, September 27, 2019
Podcasts for Training in an Organisational Setting - Research Proposal Example Podcasting offers consumer appeal, ease of use, and accessibility. The term podcasting, for the purpose of this research, refers to a technological tool that is mobile and has the capacity for internet communication, multimedia playback, and storage. A primary example of such a device is the famous iPod by the Apple Company. Although other podcast-enabled devices are available on the market, iPod is currently the preferred podcasting device (Apple 2006). The advance of technology has an obvious impact on the processes we use in an organization or institution. The suggested research will examine the affects of using podcasts for training in an organizational setting to determine its benefits and drawbacks on the training procedure. The following section of the proposal discusses the perceived relevance of the intended research, as it outlines and challenges the ability of the podcasting method to quantifiably enhance training in a given subject area. The second section presents comparable research studies through the literature review which focuses on podcasting in a first part, on the physiological and psychological aspects of learning in a second part. The third section relates to the methodology to follow in order to reach the research objectives outlined in the first section of the proposal. The details of the methodology utilized to test and measure our experiments are presented in that segment. The perspective of training with information-age technology offers a wide range of possibilities in several fields including higher education, medical and healthcare, business and management. Research Question/Why is the Research Important (300 words) Proposed Question: What do employees at my organisation (Boston Scientific) perceive as the benefits of podcasting Researchers forecast between 30 and 57 million people living in the United States will access and use iPod technology by the year 2010 - This estimate gives a general outlook on the advance of podcast-like technology into our everyday lives (Mindlin 2005). The Podcasting technology has enjoyed and continues to enjoy phenomenal growth in our society, particularly in higher education (Campbell 2005). Several institutions of higher education including Drexel and Duke University have recently introduced podcasting as a supplementary learning tool (Duke 2006). These universities embraced the technology as a way to leverage and improve the quality of their training, and the learning benefits of the technology are manifest. Dr. Lucic from Duke University concluded that the iPod initiative at Duke not only encouraged students to "think on their own", but also increased their level of creativity in how to use the technology to facilitate the learning experience (Dalrymple 2006). The adoption of the podcasting technology in these various institutions of h
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Mary Wollstonecrafts A Vindication of the Rights of Woman - Essay Example Grounding the idea of female rights, Wollstonecraft bases herself upon positions of the liberal theory of English philosopher John Lock about necessity of recognition of equal rights for all "full citizens". Paradox of the concept of liberalism of Lock, directed against despotism of absolute power, is that as "full citizens" of a potential liberal society he considered independent in relation to a monarch owners private, mainly the land property, which first of all are attributed with the ability to possess intellect, that is to be rational subjects (be capable to operate own land). "The central idea behind Wollstonecraft's work is that women are rational beings and should be treated as such"2. According to Mary Wollstonecraft, as the theorist of the liberal concept of female rights, the most important becomes the philosophical thesis about recognition of a female subject rational. Only in that case a woman has a chance to enter into a liberal continuum of "full citizenship" described by Lock. The other significant thesis is that female sensuality is not purely natural, but socially caused characteristic. Wollstonecraft states, "But, if women are to be excluded, without having a voice from a participation of the natural rights of mankind, prove first, to ward off the charge of injustice and inconsistency, that they want reason - else this flaw in your NEW CONSTITUTION will ever shew that man must, in some shape, act like a tyrant, and tyranny, in whatever part of society it rears its brazen front, will ever undermine morality"3.In conformity with the above said theoretical issues, considering modern position of women Wollstonecraft recognizes that the majority of women are not yet ready to act in a line with men as their intellect is insufficiently developed because of prevalence of sensual characteristics in it.However this position, in her opinion, is not a consequence of the special nature, female sensuality as considered Russo, or particular qualities of female intell ect as considered Kant. Such state of facts first of all is a result of the limited female education, and secondly of deprivations of women of basic civil rights, that is a consequence of certain social reasons which can be changed. Wollstonecraft's aim particularly in "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" is "to add the individual and civil rights of women to the universal category"4. Therefore the main philosophical thesis of enlighteners, which was a subject of Wollstonecraft's critic, is Russo's thesis about "the special female nature", in which sensuality prevails of intellect. Wollstonecraft considers that femininity in that form as it is described by Russo, is a repressive social construct, which will cease to exist provided that socialization of women will pass in the same conditions as socialization of men. The basic object of criticism of Wollstonecraft is so-called "superfluous sensuality" which is imputed to women in Russo's philosophical concept. In her book the author opposes men, who are admired of excessive female sensitivity and stand up for its development. It calls such men "tyrants of sexuality", and women, which agree to cultivate such type of sensuality in itself (sensuality of a sexual object) she calls "slaves of pleasures". Wollstonecraft accepts that owing to sensuality women has an opportunity to use a special form of
Situation analysis and marketing objectives - Assignment Example TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 2 The following is situation and marketing objectives report aimed at establishing the marketing analysis for IPHONE products. It will provide an insight on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s external and internal environment. Additionally, it will seek to establish the SWOT analysis report for the company. The company recent developments are aimed at establishing the best marketing objectives, and it is crucial to find out which are in practice for the needed sustainability. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 1.0Introduction 4 2.0 Analysis of Current Marketing Situation 5 3.0 Situation analysis 6 3.1 The internal environment 6 3.2 The external environment 7 3.3 SWOT analysis 7 Marketing objectives 8 Conclusion 9 1.0 Introduction Marketing analysis is crucial in company valuation processes and provides a ground for new strategies implementation. The IPHONE product is a company whose dealings are propagated mainly on electronic devices. The company has a mission to become a global ent ity in terms of supplying advanced technological devices to other countries as well as quality management strategic implementation. The accomplishment of such a mission is guided by a set of reinstated objectives, which the company has always aspired to achieve. The main objective is to design modern technological tools, including personal computers and other social media devices. They also aspire to accomplish a manufacturing objective for the undersigned media tools. Marketing is also part of their desires, to develop the most modern marketing strategies that would boost their CRM (Customer Relationship Management). Conduction of marketing analysis enables an organization to identify their weak and strong areas. This acts as a guideline for future organizational trends in order to enhance sustainability. It is the desire of every top management in an organization to become the best in order to fit in the modern dynamic world. Situation analysis helps analyze the internal external status of an organization. It is also through this that strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats are identified. Marketing objectives define the desired scope of organizational operation as well as organizational mission statements (Lamb et al., 263). The discussion in this paper offers a comprehensive report on marketing analysis for IPHONE product. Situational analysis will give an overview of internal and external environment in addition to SWOT analysis. Marketing objectives are also considered a vital area of discussion, since marketing plays a pivotal role in reaching target consumers. 2.0 Analysis of Current Marketing Situation The current marketing situation is characterized by dealership in a number of computer accessories as well as phone products. The recent times have seen IPHONE venture into innovating new products in the market, with the objective of enhancing its sustainability. The recent years have proved challenging to the company, owing to the rising leve l of competition from companies producing similar products. The recently innovated products include; Software programs that facilitate people purchasing and storing music in their internet provider devices. Additionally, they are major manufacturers of iMacs in addition to Mac Books and iPods. Generally, the company has been able to adopt new social communication devices that are aimed at providing their target customers with the needed information.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Exclusion clause - Essay Example Exclusion clauses are guided by statutory provision and case law (Barker, 2007). In English Law, Simon (1981) noted the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 (UCTA) seeks to regulate exclusion clauses in contracts by limiting their applicability to cases where they are absolutely necessary. The Act regulates all contracts (Beale, 2012). One of the statuteÃ¢â¬â¢s primary roles is to restrict the legality of disclaimers of liability to reasonableness, depending on the kind of the duty which is claimed to be exempted and whether the offerer who intended to benefit from such clauses harmed the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s interests (Brawn, 2012). The UCTA is usually applied in combination with the Sale of Goods Act 1979, the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999. Firstly, under the UCTA, a party cannot excuse himself or herself from negligence under section 2(1) of UCTA 1977 when the breach of duty results in death or personal injury (Hughes-Jennett and Anslow, 2009). Secondly, under section 5(a), a company cannot exempt itself from liability caused by faulty goods or distributor negligence, particularly where commodities are meant for consumption (Stone, 2013). The doctrine that cushions the consumer is referred to as manufacturer liability. Thirdly, in light of the need to protect the consumer, sections 12-15 of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 outlaw the exclusion of implied terms or terms which provide details of value or sample of goods (Walsh, 2009). In addition, the Consumer Protection Act 1987, and the Occupiers Liability Act 1984 are also vital pieces of legislation whose enactment contributes to the regulation of exclusion clauses (Page, 1994). Despite the enactment of these rafts of legislation to regulate a relatively small area of law, the fundamental reason behind them is to protect unsuspecting consumers from death, personal injury or material losses
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Self-Assessment - Essay Example The value of quality communication skills is immeasurable especially when it comes to creating personal development and creating relationships. I tend to think of myself as outgoing and love initiating warm up conversations with people (Robbins, 2008). In an attempt to determine my strengths and weaknesses in terms of communication, I took a test on face-to-face communication style. The results, which prove what my peers think of me, indicate that I have a stronghold in the areas of being friendly, attentive to matters and contentious (Robbins, 2008). In addition, I appeared not only secretive about my own issues but to also leave an impression on people. My weak point according to the test on the face-to-face communication style include not being effective in delivering message to a group, being a loud communicator and finding it difficult to control myself in a heated debate. Several factors contributed to the perception by my peers that I am friendly. The first attribute was that I ordinarily introduce myself and give a handshake coupled with a smile, every time I meet a new person (Robbins, 2008). My peers were of the view that I tend to show effort in remembering the names of individuals. Most of my friends stated that I tend to associate the names of individuals close to me with a unique feature. To add to that is the perception that I often use courtesy words for instance Thank you and your welcome. According to Robbins (2008), with regard to the issue of paying attention to detail, majority of my peer argued that I occasionally make a lot of eye contact and nod my head to show understanding on an issue. My body language says it all as depending on the environment, I usually lean forward on the side of the speaker thereby indicating focus on the message. The perception of my contentiousness arises from the judgment that I argue my points from facts.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Business Information Management - Essay Example Raw data is reformed into meaningful purposes. The information can be achieved from data using different transformations and data processes. After this, information is categorized as good and bad information. The quality of information depends on different attributes e.g. timing, content and form of information. Just like other assets in the business information, it is also considered as an important asset. Management refers to the effective and efficient operation of a business. Owners or managers or both administer their business. They manage the basic/primary components of business that are resources (capital and tangible), financial resources and human resources. The management in a business if performed is different aspects like financial management, human resource management, strategic management, marketing management and information technology management etc. Business Information Management (BIM) is an integrated system, which established effective information channels to brin g business functions and information modules together. These channels are very useful in term of making timely and accurate decisions in organizational productivity and competitiveness (Benyon-Davies 2009). 1: BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEM Nature: A system is a collection of different components that work together to achieve a common goal. A system gets inputs from different sources and generates outcomes. The organizations are controlled by information systems because information system provides information that is necessary to control a business. Thus a business information system is a group of systems, which are related to each other and they work collectively. They carry out inputs, process them, generate outputs and control the information. This information is then used for forecasting, planning, coordination and control activities in a business (OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan & Sheffhrin 2003). The business components can be classified into five resources people, hardware, software, communic ation and data. People resource consists of information system manager and technical support staff to maintain and operate the business information system. Hardware resources are said to be computers and other devices. Software resources are based on instruction manuals as computer programs. Communication resources consist of networks but computers and software are needed to support them. And data resources are a computer database or paper files of business, which organization has access. Need & Purpose: Due to growth in the competitive environment and development in technology, there become necessary for the organization to make their operation; tactical and strategic process more effective and efficient using the information system. The business information system plays the important role in the e-business and e-commerce operations and in strategic success of the business (Case 2012). Business information system becomes a management information system when it applied in an organiz ation by directors to improve the management. Therefore, the management information system is said to be a collection of manpower, business tools, software and procedures to perform different business tasks and improve the efficiency of management in business. Due to a fundamental change in the external environment, the organizations also change their business information strategy. Now days the most important and significant development in business use of information sy
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Visual Art in Greek Mythology Essay Visual art is one of the most important facets of ancient culture. Not only is visual art aesthetically pleasing to the senses, but it aids us in grasping the concepts of civilizations and stories that we could not fully understand in simple text. Greek mythology has bred some of the most beautiful works of art ever created. These works tell the stories they represent in lively form, color and style. One of the most famed works of art representing Greek mythology originated in 460-450 BC. This is the statue of Zeus. There are arguments about whether it is Zeus or Poseidon, because they are both pliable possibilities, but for simplicitys sake, let us assume it is Zeus. The statue of Zeus is one of great pride. He stands without hesitation. He appears to be in his 40s, but his physical body is muscular and shapely. His very stance is once that demands attention and respect. This represents his role: Zeus the chief god. Zeus is strong, powerful, and just. In the statue, Zeus is about to throw one of his lightning bolts of justice. His face is very stern and focused, as if he is seriously concentrated on the matter at hand. He stands unashamed of his exposed manhood, which is very representative of Zeuss character. Zeus is most known for his tendency to spread his seed throughout both the goddess world and the mortal woman world. It was considered a great honor to be a son or daughter of Zeus. Years and years later, in 1622, a sculptor named Gian Lorenzo created the sculpture Pluto and Proserpine. This sculpture represents the story of the capture of Persephone by Hades. Hades, the Roman Pluto, is depicted holding Persephone, the Roman Proserpine, by her waist and thigh. Persephone is turned away from Hades, pushing his face away. She attempts to squirm free of his strong grasp, a look of horror and fear on her face. It would seem this represents the moment Hades brings her to the underworld and tells her she is to be his queen. It is clear they are in the underworld because of Hades dog at his side. As Persephone pushes him away, he almost looks offended at her refusal. It is clear she cannot escape, for his body is obviously strong and muscular, and both her feet are off the ground, but her attempt is a feisty, determined one. This shows how much she does not wantÃ to stay with Hades in the underworld. The pain she feels is so apparent; her other arm is raised, as if reaching for some sort of escape, and her face is turned, as if she wouldnt even look at him. The open mouth of Hades dog also indicates that theres some sort of struggle going on, like it is barking. There is so much violent, sexual energy in this sculpture. It probably also represent the very moment before Hades ravishes Persephone. Moving further through time, the beautiful painting Cupid Kissing Psyche is created by Francois Gerard in 1798. This piece is absolutely mesmerizing. In the story of Cupid, or Eros, and Psyche, Eros is commanded by his mother Aphrodite to shoot his arrows at Psyche and make her fall in love with an ugly creature because she is jealous of her beauty. When Eros sees Psyche, he himself falls in love with her, and takes her away to be his secret bride. The only condition she must follow is that she cannot see him, for she cant know his true identity. At first Psyche is frightened, but begins to love Eros, still unknowingly. This painting represents this stage of the story, where Psyches love for the unidentified Eros is growing. The very color scheme of this painting is intensely calming and serene. Psyche sits amidst beautiful scenery, staring straight ahead. Eros is next to her, but she does not seem to notice. His hands are so close to her, but its hard to tell whether he is touching her or not. The beautiful youth of Eros is obviously deeply in love with her. Though Psyche cannot see Eros, her face seems to sense him there, and there is no trace of fear. Though it is a painting of Eros and Psyche together, I believe the painter intends for it to be an expression of their love, and not a literal scene. (Meaning, Eros is not actually there beside her. ) She is holding herself tenderly, as if treasuring a memory. Both their bodies are painted so softly and so insanely beautiful that the mind is overcome by their love when viewing this work. In 1809, painter John Vanderlyn painted Ariadne Asleep on Naxos. Ariadne was a beautiful brown-haired maiden who fell in love with the hero Theseus. Ariadne aided Theseus in his slaughter of the Minotaur, and in return, requested to be his bride. Theseus accepted her offer, and after defeating the Minotaur, brought her with him. On the island of Naxos, however, Theseus abandoned her as she slept. This painting represents the moment Theseus sails off, as seen in the background to the right. Ariadne sleeps, stretched out on the ground, her body exposed and relaxed. She looks peaceful, as if she is happily dreaming of her lover, Theseus. The red shades used around her body give her a sexual energy, and yet she rests on a cloth of white, representing her innocence and virginity. Perhaps she is dreaming of her long-awaited wedding with Theseus and the birth of her sexuality. It is tragic in the sense that she may be thinking all these things, while her fiance is sailing off without her and she has no idea. But because she is portrayed in such a desirable way, it almost hints that there will be someone else. As one story goes, the god Dionysus finds her on Naxos and makes her his wife. There is a burst of light where Theseus is sailing away, representing a love that leaves her. But there is another burst of light coming from the opposite direction, hidden in the left, illuminating her body, possibly representing a love that finds her. Painted more recently, in 1908, is Apollo and Daphne by John William Waterhouse. The story behind this painting begins with a conversation between the sun god Apollo and the god of love, Eros. Apollo asks why such a youth like Eros is carrying around weapons of war, and Eros becomes offended. Eros shoots Apollo with the gold-tipped arrow, making him fall desperately in love with the wood nymph Daphne, while he shoots Daphne with the lead-tipped arrow, making her despise Apollo. Apollo pursues Daphne and she rejects him. Daphne is soon transformed into the laurel tree, and Apollo is seen professing his love to this tree. This painting shows the end of the chase. Apollo is reaching for her, his face locked to hers. In his other hand is his musical instrument, ready to woo her. Daphne looks distressed and frightened because of Apollos persistence. The roots begin to hold her in place, beginning the transformation. In their faces, you can see the results of Eros arrows. Apollo is so focused on winning Daphnes affections that there seems to be nothing else in the world for him to do. Daphne seems so repulsed by him, you can almost hear her scream Leave me alone! just by looking at her face. These five examples really express the importance of visual art in mythology. Because we can see these pieces whenever we want, we can relive the stories whenever we want as well. They allow us to really see the thematic emotion behind each story and each god, goddess, nymph and mortal. They take the immortals and make them, well, immortal.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Counselling Rape Survivors According to the Home Office findings, Rape is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëforced to have sexual intercourse (Vaginal or anal penetration)Ã¢â¬â¢. The legal definition stipulates it to be Ã¢â¬ËpenileÃ¢â¬â¢. In general terms, rape is an act of aggression and violence against another; it is not an act of sex but is one of specifically dominance and power. Key points of the findings of the Research, Development andStatistics directorate of the Home Office published in 2002 are listedbelow. 0.4% of women aged 16 to 59 in England and Wales said they hadbeen raped in the year preceding the 2000 BCS, an estimated 61,000victims. 0.9% of women said they had been subject to some form ofsexual victimization (including rape) in this period. Around 1 in 20women (4.9%) said they had been raped since age 16, an estimated 754,000 victims. About 1 in 10 women (9.7%) said they had experiencedsome form of sexual victimisation (including rape) since age 16. Age is the biggest risk factor for experiencing sexual victimisation; women aged 16 to 24 were more likely to say they had been sexually victimised in the last year than older women. Women are most likely tobe sexually attacked by men they know in some way, most often partners(32%) or acquaintances (22%). Current partners (at the time of theattack) were responsible for 45% of rapes reported to the survey.Strangers were responsible for only 8% of rapes reported to the survey.18% of incidents of sexual victimisation reported to the survey came to the attention of the police; the police came to know about 20% of rapes. 32% of women who reported rape were Ã¢â¬Ëvery satisfiedÃ¢â¬â¢ with theway the police handled the matter, 22% were very dissatisfied. Lessthan two-thirds (60%) of female rape victims were prepared toself-classify their experience as Ã¢â¬ËrapeÃ¢â¬â¢ and less than three-quarters(70%) of women who self-classified themselves as having been victims of Ã¢â¬Ëattempted r apeÃ¢â¬â¢. Amnesty international reported that there were 14,000 recorded rapesin 2003 and 11,441 recorded rapes in 2002, representing a 8% increase.According to the Home Office, in the year ending March 2003, the totalnumber of sexual offences recorded by police in England Wales was 48,654, a 17% rise over the previous year. A victim of rape feels the fight or flight response that humans have built-in; which means that when the incident is over, one is leftwith a feeling of devastation, exhaustion, confusion, sadness, etc. The lingering psychological disorder is called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The most effective therapeutic approach for long-term,severe PSTD appears to be talking treatment sessions with a clinicalpsychologist, in which the person is encouraged to talk through theirexperiences in detail. This may involve behavioural or cognitivetherapeutic approaches. Antidepressants may also be prescribed torelieve concurrent depression, a common feature in survivors, andenable the person to get the most out of any psychological treatment.Counselling may be helpful too in the early stages of recovery,particularly from counsellors experienced in the treatment of PTSD. Before we go into detail on counselling for rape survivors, it is essential to take into account the effectiveness of counselling in general. According to the Department of Health (2001), Counselling hasbeen defined as Ã¢â¬Å" a systematic process which gives individuals anopportunity to explore, discover and clarify ways of living moreresourcefully, with a greater sense of well-being Ã¢â¬ . The use ofcounselling as a means of responding to people in distress and turmoilhas been increasing rapidly in recent years. This has generated adebate on the effectiveness of counselling process itself. The methodsof evaluation of effectiveness is also highly controversial. Theconcerns in the qualitative and quantitative evaluation is discussed indetail later. Bondi summarises from her reports on controlled trials conducted inhealth care settings. They seem to indicate that counselling is aneffective intervention, clinically and economically. Its costs andbenefits are broadly comparable to those of antidepressant medication. Moreover, it seems to be a popular choice with many patients. Cautionis sometimes attached to the results of these trials. This may be dueto the fact that it only involves a small trial when compared to thelarge trial group of medication. Studies of counselling in othersettings indicate a high level of satisfaction among clients. Bondialso writes that there is good evidence to suggest that counselling hasa capacity to reduce demand on psychiatric services. This is becausecounselling prevents less serious problems from becoming more seriousand helps people to maintain reasonably good levels of mental health. Choice of treatment of survivors of rape has been one of increasing significance within health care and also highlights the need toconsider factors other than clinical and cost-effectiveness.Counselling is not the only form of talking treatment available. Otherforms of talking treatment include psychotherapy, cognitive behaviourtherapy, self-help groups and support groups. Counselling attaches a great significance to the autonomy of the victim and therefore it cannot be administered to the unwilling. The success of counselling, therefore, depends on active participation. For counsellingof rape victims, feelings caused by abuse may be quite overwhelming and difficult to deal with. The Department of Health (2001) has recommended counselling as one of the types of psychological therapy for depression, anxiety, panic disorder, social anxiety and phobias andpost traumatic disorders. These problems can be mainly related tosurvivors of rape. The National Center for Victims of Crime (2004) recommends that counselling can help cope with the physical and emotional reactions to the sexual assault or rape, as well as provide necessary information about medical and criminal justice system procedures. According to the reports by the Brunel University (2005) on sexual abuse and rape, sharing experiences in a safe, understanding and confidential setting may help to manage their feelings by being heard and taken seriously.Ã Counselling enables to make sense of the present, in relation to the past.Ã Some survivors of sexual abuse maybe plagued by memories in the form of distressing flashbacks, mental images or nightmares.Ã Talking about the images and memories while being heard and supported will often ease the problem.Ã It may beeasier to share incidents and feelings with a professional counsellorconfidential, rather than a friend. Some people prefer to talk to ahelpline so they do not have to face the person they are disclosing to. Ã According to BondiÃ¢â¬â¢s summary of her studies on the effectiveness ofcounselling that sceptics often voice doubts of counselling because itappears to involve nothing other than one (or two people) Ã¢â¬Å"chattingÃ¢â¬ toa counsellor. However, in spite of these doubts, communication takesplace when counselling is effected, whereby a special kind ofrelationship is developed between the counsellor and the victim. Bondiattributes this to the fact that human beings are social creaturescapable of connecting with others. It is worth to note that allapproaches to counselling share a commitment to apply insights andunderstandings about the importance of these connections to offertherapeutically effective relationships. Impacts of counselling on rape survivors often depends on the development of a helpful working relationship between the counsellor and survivor.Ã According to the STAR findings, some women feel nervous and unenthusiastic about seeing a counsellor. Therefore, it is essential that they feel relaxed and comfortable to be able to talk freely. Setting up of a pace comfortable for the victim is important as it recognises the interlinked nature of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives (Skinner andTaylor,Ã Home Office report 51/04).Ã According to Bernes (2005), effective counselling leading to a good counsellor-victim relationship follows the following dynamics. They are an emotionally charged, confiding relationship between the patient and therapist; warmth, support and attention from the therapist in a healing setting; a positive therapeutic alliance between patient and therapist; a new rationale or conceptual scheme offered with confidence by the therapist; the passage of time; installation of hope and expectancy and finally techniques consistent with patient expectation and efficacy. Common process strategies in counselling include gathering sufficient information, listening well and with understanding, helping the individual reflect and gain insight, helping in decision-making and goal setting, and providing options and ideas for client consideration (Korhonen). According to the Home Office reports on the STAR scheme, the data collected from the survey did not give any indications that anyone counselling technique works better than another.Ã Methods likedrawing or making lists of feelings, events, concerns and workingthrough them were found to be effective by some rape survivors. Some found making plans for the future, for example, symbolic moves such aschanging the dÃ ©cor of the room seemed to indicate a new phase in their lives.Ã Others indicated that a flexible integrated approach with respect, a respectful politeness, support and even the smiling face of the counsellors seemedto have helped them. The need for administering couna respectful, supportive and caring environment is also essential. Also, them cope development of a programme of work that enabled them to look at themselves in a logical, positive and respective manner athem cope with their emotions and move forward at their own pace is essential. The university of Dundee has introduced a computer counsellingtechnique called Ã¢â¬ËENHANCEÃ¢â¬â¢ for rape victims. Often, women who have been raped find it hard to talk about their feelings and research evidence shows that in sensitive and potentially embarrassing areas of human functioning, some people may find it easier to talk openly to acomputer. ENHANCE,Ã a computer based facility which includes a diaryfacility for free writing, a visualisation tool to describe feelingsand graphic manipulation and exploration, an information base to accessa range of supportive information, leaflets and contacts and the optionof what to destroy or save it for later reference. Further work is being done to develop ENHANCE and the researchers feel that their workcan be transferred to other agencies in future. Furthermore, it is inan early stage to be assessed for effectiveness. Computer counselling is, therefore, new and brings to attention to the fact there is very few online support avail able for rape survivors. This can be a good sourceof data for qualitative research as it reduces some of its ethical risks which are discussed in detail later.Ã Ã Ã It is very difficult to assess the effectiveness of counselling forrape survivors as due to the dilemmas in relation to the ethicalpractises of counselling, training and qualifications of counsellors and the evaluation of counselling and little published information.Counselling services are offered in a wide range of settings, which influences the kind of outcomes (Bondi). Bondi, in her review ofdifferent counselling orientations writes that similar effects may beusually reported. This is consistent with the argument that it is thequality of the therapeutic relationships offered by the counsellorswhich determine the effectiveness of counselling.Ã Effectiveness of rape counselling can be studied by either qualitativeor quantitative research. McLeod (2000) reports from his paperpresented at the 8th Annual International Counselling, University of Durham that counselling in Britain at the beginning of the twenty-first century does not have a clear vision of the role of research. It is worth mentioning that very few studies have focussed on research methods to measure effectiveness of counselling for rape victims. McLeod also reports that, in general, published studies of counsellingand therapy in dominated by quantitative research like up to 95%. Ingeneral, cultural assumptions are concerned with the development ofmethods that are valid and reliable.Ã Quantitative research reduceshuman experience and action to variables. Hypothesis are framed interms of the relationships between these variables, which can often beinterpreted a rational voice allowing no expression of feeling orpersonal experience (McLoad, 2000).Ã There has been no reportsÃ relating to quantitative research on counselling for rape. Qualitative research has been used lately in the health care settingsand voluntary organisation for rape survivors. Qualitative research refers to research conducted in an interpretive or critical tradition. Research conducted in this tradition generally includes ethnographies, naturalistic observation or intensive interviewing studies, and usessome type of content analysis of words or texts to generate themes, which summarize the results of the study. The goals of qualitative research are not usually to generalize from the findings to some largertruth, but rather to explore or generate truths for the particular sample of individuals studied or to generate new theories. There is often an emphasis in qualitative research on perception or livedexperience.Ã ThereÃ are quite a few ethical concerns in qualitative research of assessing the effectiveness of counselling of rape victims.Ã Knapik (2002)in his paper summarises the ethical concerns of qualitative researchwhich mainly rev olve around an assessment of benefit versus harm,confidentiality, duality of roles, and informed consentÃ It is oftenassumed that qualitative data does not involve physical manipulation orintrusive procedures on victims. But it can pose certain risks to the victims.Ã Moleski and Kiselica (2005) highlight the dangers of a dual or multiplerelationships between the counsellor and victim. During research involving in-depth interviews or focus group discussions on such asensitive as rape, the researcher (generally a counsellor, but called aresearcher in this context as the data collected is for the purposes of qualitative research) develops a relationship of trust with the victim. The relationship may be misinterpreted by the participant as atherapist-client relationship. The data may be interpreted in waysunflattering or damaging to participants. It is therefore important toassess the harms and benefits in dealing with real clients. Secondly, risks to individuals participating in qualitative researchmay often not be anticipated. This is because the method and researchquestions are always evolving and changing from the various organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to the case. These risks should be made clearto the participants from the beginning and also du ring the course ofthe experiment. Thirdly and most importantly, qualitative researchÃ always generatesquestions on the ability to protect confidential information. Usually, names and personal data are excluded from published results, but quotations, cues from the publications can always identify theparticipant to those familiar with the research. Reasons for this maybe because of the nature of sensitivity of the rape abuse problem,Ã trial groups always being small and trials being conducted in smallcommunity structures. Reports were published by the Home Office on the Ã¢â¬ËSTAR young person projectÃ¢â¬â¢ on assessing the counselling services offered to rape survivors. Young women primarily had a positive counselling experiencebut a small number reported some level of dissatisfaction.Ã One of the reasons were the short sessions of counselling, as they could not continue working with their counsellors on a long term basis. This indicated the issue of assess to a restricted number of sessions.Ã Another issue was the pace at which information is disclosed to thecounsellor, as a small percentage of the women disliked gettingstraight to the information or having to answer questions pertaining tothe incidents within a shorter period of contact between the victim andthe counsellor. This may be because a certain time span is needed toestablish a counsellor-victim relationship which varies from case tocase and depends on the severity of the case. Ã Ã Another small percentage of the STAR participants felt that the counsellor was not equipped to work with areas of the case and thatthey were given unhelpful advise or irrelevant information or help in away which was not the one suited for the particular case. This throwslight on the training issues of counsellors, whether they are properly equipped for the job. Another percentage of the women, said that thecounsellor disapproved of them being late or related issues whichindicate an over-protective or over-controlling issue which can causenegative impacts on the counselling experience. The findings indicatethe need for a more flexible approach during counselling experiences, longer-term counselling and support by the counsellor, proper trainingfor counsellors and more research into counselling methods and theirevaluation.Ã According to the findings of the British Crime Survey (2002), it isdifficult to assess the level of support for victims of rape due to the small number of victims in year 2001. Also, the British Crime Survey(2002) reports that support services are under-funded, relative tosupport services dedicated to victims of domestic violence. In UK, therapy services for rape survivors are available from charity andlistening services, health services provided by the universities forstudents, NHS andÃ few religious movements.Ã In the NHS, there areusually long waiting lists sometimes up to a year for patients toaccess counsellor services. In voluntary and charity services there maynot always be round-the clock assistance for rape survivors. Telephone access is restricted to certain times of the day.Ã Findings of research on women rape victims are available in a varietyof forms and from a variety of places. Professional journals such as Violence Against Women, the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Aggression Violence Behavior, Violence Victims, and the Journal of Family Violence include research conducted by psychologists, social workers, sociologists, advocates, and others. In addition to professional journals, findings of research are presented at domesticviolence conferences, described in the popular press, found on websites devoted to ending violence against women, and are available aspublications from government agencies like the Home Office, UK orprivate research organizations (various voluntary organisationÃ¢â¬â¢swebsites). Research reports published in scientific journals are subject to peer-review.Ã Research published in scientific journals thus gives thereader some confidence in the scientific credibility of the researchfindings. Scientific credibility, however, does not necessarily meanthat the findings represent Ã¢â¬Å"the truthÃ¢â¬ . Research released directlyfrom an organization sponsoring the research does not usually gothrough the peer review process. So there is a real need for independent qualitative research into the counselling services for rape victims in the UK. The UK Home Office should actively engage inindependent evaluation of counselling services for rape victims. The STAR project recommendations the following for future research. There is need for piloting and evaluating peer support systems. New research projects into contexts and circumstances of rape is requiredto throw new light on the academic and practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. More research is needed into the needs of victims from internet supportservices while reviewing the current internet support service toprovide guidelines for practise. More creative approaches in regards toservices for survivors were also required. It is also recommended that counsellors be given appropriate training to improve the services to rape survivors. According to Bernes (2005), there are five critical components forbecoming an effective counsellor. The counsellor should have aprofound, genuine and early draw to the field, a profound and genuinefascination to try to understand human nature, cognitive ability, arigorous and quality academic program and major field exposure. There is therefore a genuine need for efforts to be focussed in creating effective counsellors to deal with rape victims. More funding to develop therapy services is required. There is a need to establish infrastructure towards organisations involved in treatmentand care of victims. Further research into the effective processes ofvarious approaches of counselling is recommended. Detailed research isneeded into the qualitative analysis of effectiveness of thecounselling processes. Also, independent qualitative analysis in victimsupport is needed to verify the results. In general, in the UK, counselling for rape survivors have still a long way to go.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Still No Equality for Women in Sports Throughout the history of women in sports, women had to ?merge? then ?submerge? with male dominated sports organizations and structures in order to participate. The Olympic Games is a key example of women have to merge and submerge with a male dominated organization. The first modern Olympics, held in 1896, did not allow women participants. And when women were allowed to participate, in 1900, it was in only three sports and out of the 1,225 athletes, only nineteen were women. The Olympics have allowed women to ?merge?, thus enabling women to participate in the games and rise to the level that they compete at today, however women are still ?submerged? within the dominant male sport structure, as can be seen with the present imbalance of men?s and women?s events and the significantly higher number of male athletes than females. Though equal participation of male and female athletes needs to be further developed, the mere idea of female participation in organized ?male? sports is social ly and culturally significant by empowering women and breaking barriers that hinder women in all aspects of life. Women have always been regarded as the "weaker" sex and the role of the woman was always to be submissive, passive and obedient to men. With sports, women hardly had a role at all until the twentieth century. Using the Olympics as an example, female athletes were not even considered at the onset of the modern games, and when they were allowed to compete in the second games in the 1900s, their presence was not taken seriously, only nineteen women competed, and only in three sporting events: golf, archery, and tennis. However, the "merging" of women into the Olympic games has come a long way, as can... .... This problem is not one that can easily be solved. Until everyone, including women, unlearns the stereotypes, which hinder women all around the world, something as simple as women playing sports will not fully be embraced or accepted. The merging of female athletes into male sporting arenas has been a milestone in illustrating women's capabilities, but we are still only partway there. As is illustrated through the submerging of women in the Olympics, women are still not social equals to men. Countries that restrict women to the extreme still thrive and refuse to allow women to pursue sports because of the cultural beliefs, and even in democratic societies women are still not regarded as equal to men. Until the idea of equality is truly accepted by society, women's sports will always be submerged, not only on the playing field, but in the entire realm of life. Still No Equality for Women in Sports Essays -- Argumentative Persuasi Still No Equality for Women in Sports Throughout the history of women in sports, women had to ?merge? then ?submerge? with male dominated sports organizations and structures in order to participate. The Olympic Games is a key example of women have to merge and submerge with a male dominated organization. The first modern Olympics, held in 1896, did not allow women participants. And when women were allowed to participate, in 1900, it was in only three sports and out of the 1,225 athletes, only nineteen were women. The Olympics have allowed women to ?merge?, thus enabling women to participate in the games and rise to the level that they compete at today, however women are still ?submerged? within the dominant male sport structure, as can be seen with the present imbalance of men?s and women?s events and the significantly higher number of male athletes than females. Though equal participation of male and female athletes needs to be further developed, the mere idea of female participation in organized ?male? sports is social ly and culturally significant by empowering women and breaking barriers that hinder women in all aspects of life. Women have always been regarded as the "weaker" sex and the role of the woman was always to be submissive, passive and obedient to men. With sports, women hardly had a role at all until the twentieth century. Using the Olympics as an example, female athletes were not even considered at the onset of the modern games, and when they were allowed to compete in the second games in the 1900s, their presence was not taken seriously, only nineteen women competed, and only in three sporting events: golf, archery, and tennis. However, the "merging" of women into the Olympic games has come a long way, as can... .... This problem is not one that can easily be solved. Until everyone, including women, unlearns the stereotypes, which hinder women all around the world, something as simple as women playing sports will not fully be embraced or accepted. The merging of female athletes into male sporting arenas has been a milestone in illustrating women's capabilities, but we are still only partway there. As is illustrated through the submerging of women in the Olympics, women are still not social equals to men. Countries that restrict women to the extreme still thrive and refuse to allow women to pursue sports because of the cultural beliefs, and even in democratic societies women are still not regarded as equal to men. Until the idea of equality is truly accepted by society, women's sports will always be submerged, not only on the playing field, but in the entire realm of life.
I agree with the law that people who commit crimes need to be punished for their wrong doings. However, I do not agree with the way that the law thinks that problem should be handled through the death penalty. The bad part about the death penalty is that innocent people are executed, there is racism in the death penalty, the mentally retarded are executed, and the death penalty is costly. As long as the death penalty is maintained, the risk of executing the innocent can never be eliminated. People who are found guilty and sentenced to death row can truly be innocent. It is said by Amnesty International a campaigning movement that works to promote all the human rights that, "since 1973 at least 53 men were released from death row in seventeen US stated due to significant evidence of their innocence and that some prisoners escaped execution by minutes but 23 were actually executed". Everyone is not perfect. People can fall victim to false testimonies, mistaken identification, community prejudice, and pressure. These are just a few ways in which a person can be found guilty of a crime. These are crucial mistakes that can happen and a person can quickly be sentenced to the death penalty without second thought. Innocent people should not have to experience situations so terrifying which could lead a person to flip out and go insane. There is no reason for an inno cent person to be killed for being at the wrong place at the wrong time or for some other ridiculous mis...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Negative Effects of EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s Lyrics Eminem is a name that most Americans have grown to know about in the last year. Not only for his music, but for the controversy that his music brings. Many people are offended by his lyrics and they believe that he should be regulated in some way. In my paper I will give some background on Eminem, some examples of his lyrics, different points of view, and my personal beliefs on this situation. Eminem is a character whose real name is Marshall Mathers III. He was born in Kansas City and traveled between there and Detroit with his mother during a rough divorce in his early life. He lived a pretty rough life, changing schools and friends constantly. He grew up rapping with African American friends and was always interested in rapping. Although he's Caucasian, he has fit right in with Dr. Dre and his partners. Eminem had until just recently been married to a young woman named Kim. Kim and Marshall were high school sweethearts but have had a really rough marriage. They have a five year old child named Hailie, who which Eminem attributes much of his success and mentions in several of his songs. Dr. Dre discovered Eminem and signed a contract with him. Eminem's debut album "Infinite" was released in 1996 (Eminem). Several of Eminem's lyrics are considered "hate lyrics" by many organizations, individuals, and companies. Many of these people consider his songs hate lyrics because of his repeated use of the word "faggot." On the "Marshall Mathers LP" album Eminem mentions "fag" or "faggot" thirteen times in eighteen songs (Glaad). Also, some of the lyrics are very graphic and violent towards women. A few examples of songs that have anti-gay lyrics are "Kill You," "Who Knew," "Skit: Steve ... ...tions/documents/index.html?record=2500 Garry, Joan M. "From The Desk Of Glaad Executive Director." 2 January 2001. http://www.glaad.org/org/topics/?topic=857 "Glaad Action Alert: Eminem's Hate Lyrics." http://www.pflag-phoenix.org/eminemlyrics.html "History of Glaads Work Regarding Eminem." July 2000. http://www.glaad.org/org/publications/documents/index.html?record=2667 "History of Glaads Work Regarding Eminem." August 2000. http://www.glaad.org/org/publications/documents/index.html?record=2667 "History of Glaads Work Regarding Eminem." September 2000. http://www.glaad.org/org/publications/documents/index.html?record=2667 Moody, Nekesa Mumbi. "Thousands Protest Grammy Nods For Eminem." 5 January 2000. http://www.msnbc.com/news/512380.asp?cp1=1 MTV News Archieve. "Eminem: I Came To Make A Statement." 23 February 2001 http://mtv.com/nav/intro_news.html
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
In 1914, as the First World War began, many would argue that the conflict had narrowed political divisions in Germany as all political parties were united, with the common aim of winning the Great War. However, despite this initial unification, as the war progressed, it proceeded to politically polarise Germany as different political perspectives emerged, desiring many contrasting things, the major contrast being between left wing groups that wanted the war to end, and right wing groups which wanted to continue with the war until Germany had won.Therefore, by 1918, the First World War had very much increased rather than narrowed political division in Germany. Initially, the war narrowed political divisions because as the war had begun, Germany went into a system of Burgfrieden, summoned by Kaiser Wilhelm II. This was a political truce, agreed to by all of the major German political parties, to put their politics aside and unite to support the war effort. As part of this truce, all po wer was transferred from the Reichstag and given to the Bundesrat.Eventually this would develop into the Ã¢â¬Ësilent dictatorshipÃ¢â¬â¢ of Hindenburg and Ludendorff who effectively became the most powerful men in Germany as all political and military decisions came from them. Although there were slight constraints on their powers, from August 1916, they decided on the strategy of the war and how Germany should proceed and their views superseded the contrasting ideas of Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg.It is clear that this system of Burgfrieden, where political standpoints had been thrown aside, would have narrowed political divisions as it seriously reduced the amount of opposition to the war that might have been expected from different groups such as the SPD. It could also be argued that this semi-dictatorship of Hindenburg and Ludendorff would also have narrowed political division as these two people would have all political control and stop diverse political debate, allowing for decisions to be made quickly.However, as all resources were put into ensuring territorial gain and military measures, this did attract some opposition. The conformity of the SPD and workers unions was key to the limited opposition that the war faced in German politics. The SPD believed it was their patriotic duty to support the government in war and also feared the repression that they may face if they openly opposed the war. A small number of party members did speak out against the war. In August 1914, fourteen of the 110 socialists in the Reichstag argued against the war but they were lone voices that did not provoke widespread opposition.A small number of thinkers (such as Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg) also argued that revolution was the only way to achieve peace. However this belief had limited impact, as these thinkers spent most of the war in prison. This limited opposition voice was fundamental to the narrowing of political division at the start of the war. However, as the w ar progressed, opposition grew and this would go on to dramatically widen political divisions. When political divisions were beginning to widen in 1917, there was potential for political reform which could have once more unified different political opinions.People had begun to lose confidence in the war effort and in reform and consequently, opposition looked likely to grow. Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg persuaded the Kaiser to give hope of reform. In the Easter Offer, the Kaiser promised an end to PrussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s three class voting system and to reform the Bundesrat once the war was over. This promise of more democratic reform could have potentially quelled any opposition feeling that was emerging amongst the German people. Unfortunately for the Kaiser, it did little to convince those in and outside the Reichstag who felt that it was time to negotiate peace without victory.The KaiserÃ¢â¬â¢s failed attempt to quell opposition highlights how political divisions were widening as peop le no longer accepted a definitive answer from the Kaiser. German politics had undergone such polarisation that uniformity no longer seemed a possibility. However, despite BurgfriedenÃ¢â¬â¢s initial success in narrowing political divisions at the start of the war, as the war progressed, greater political divisions emerged, even amongst different political parties. For example, divisions emerged within the SPD.Although leaders of the party continued to support the war, a breakaway party, the USPD, wanted the war to come to an end, they were one of a number of parties who began to feel that the best solution would be to negotiate Ã¢â¬Ëpeace without victoryÃ¢â¬â¢ as it was becoming apparent that victory was not a likely possibility. The USPD was a breakaway party formed by a number of party members that had been dismissed for disagreeing with party decisions on war credits. However, despite this, by 1918, the USPD had the substantial support of 100,000 members.Additionally, peace groups in the Reichstag voted in favour of a peace resolution that promoted peace without annexing any land or triumphing in the war as the majority of the Reichstag seemed to agree that after the failure of LudendorffÃ¢â¬â¢s final major offensive, a time had come to initiate peace without victory rather than wait for victorious peace. Especially as the Allies had superiority in men and materials and had not yet utilised AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s full potential. It became clear that with such a strong opposition, it would be very difficult to emerge from the war victorious.This feeling that Ã¢â¬Ëpeace without victoryÃ¢â¬â¢ should be negotiated was supported by peace groups such as the Peace League for Freedom created by Pope Benedict XV. This left wing group aimed to promote peace and bring about the end of the war. Despite the creation of such groups, new political groups had also emerged in favour of the war. The right wing pressure group, The German Fatherland Party wanted to insti l nationalistic pride, with a belief that they could still win the war, keen for GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s continued participation in the conflict.This pressure group was supported by leading military figures such as Admiral von Tirpitz and Ludendorff, and by the end of 1917, the party had one million supporters. This highlights how all sides of the political spectrum seemed to have substantial support and highlights how divided Germany had become politically. It is therefore clear that despite the initial unity that was brought about by Burgfrieden, political divisions had widened dramatically by the end of the war. International actions also provoked discontent within Germany. The involvement of the USA in the war led to certain groups opposing the war.It now seemed near-impossible for Germany to win the war as there was an extra major power against them. Additionally, it could be argued that the Russian Revolution could have inspired new political thought. It provided inspiration for the discontented as they may have understood the potential that industrial action can have and realised that their voices could be heard to spark some serious political change. This is another factor that widened political division in Germany as people now understood the fact that they did not have to conform to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling.Nearer the end of the war, in the years 1917 and 1918, there were increasing strikes within Germany with growing social discontent. In early 1918, 500,000 people were on strike for five days and although protests were quashed by the authorities, resentment continued with strikers wanted an end to the war, democratic rights and more food as people were being rationed through a war economy and the Turnip Winter of 1916-17 had led to rising levels of malnutrition and starvation. Growing opposition also stemmed from the huge losses suffered in the war.Of 13. 2 million German soldiers, there were 6. 2 million casualties with 2. 05 million killed. As peo ple began to realise that Germany may not win the war, they began to question the sacrifice of the millions that had died and this provoked increasing resentment and opposition. This growing popular opposition is another example of how Germany was becoming increasingly divided over domestic issues provoked by the war and also the war itself as increasingly more people wanted it to end.Overall, although things looked promising in 1914, when the Kaiser had initiated Burgfrieden and all political parties had agreed to put their political differences aside, this did not succeed in narrowing political divisions. As the war continued, Germany underwent political polarisation with an increasingly aggrieved population and a contrast in political parties as left wing groups demanded an immediate end to the war and right wing groups wanted to continue until Germany were victorious.The First World War, despite initially creating political unity, increased political divisions in Germany dramati cally, rather than narrowing them. It did so to such an extent that soon after the end of the war, Germany underwent dramatic political reform, rapidly going through a period of constitutional monarchy before developing into a parliamentary democracy seeing the Kaiser exiled to the Netherlands. The narrowing of political division that Wilhelm had achieved at the start of the war, had clearly failed.
Monday, September 16, 2019
No longer is asthma considered a condition with isolated, acute episodes of bronchospasm. Rather, asthma is now understood to be a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airwaysÃ¢â¬âthat is, inflammation makes the airways chronically sensitive. When these hyper-responsive airways are irritated, airflow is limited, and attacks of coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and breathing difficulty occur. Asthma involves complex interactions among inflammatory cells, mediators, and the cells and tissues in the airways. The interactions result in airflow limitation from acute broncho-constriction, swelling of the airway wall, increased mucus secretion, and airway remodeling. The inflammation also causes an increase in airway responsiveness.During an asthma attack, the patient attempts to compensate by breathing at a higher lung volume in order to keep the air flowing through the constricted airways, and the greater the airway limitation, the higher the lung volume must be to keep airways open . The morphologic changes that occur in asthma include bronchial infiltration by inflammatory cells. Key effector cells in the inflammatory response are the mast cells, T lymphocytes, and eosinophils.Mast cells and eosinophils are also significant participants in allergic responses, hence the similarities between allergic reactions and asthma attacks. Other changes include mucus plugging of the airways, interstitial edema, and microvascular leakage. Destruction of bronchial epithelium and thickening of the subbasement membrane is also characteristic. In addition, there may be hypertrophy and hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle, increase in goblet cell number, and enlargement of sub-mucous glands. Although causes of the initial tendency toward inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma are not yet certain, to date the strongest identified risk factor is atopy.This inherited familial tendency to have allergic reactions includes increased sensitivity to allergens that are risk factors for developing asthma. Some of these allergens include domestic dust mites, animals with fur, cockroaches, pollens, and molds. Additionally, asthma may be triggered by viral respiratory infections, especially in children. By avoiding these allergens and triggers, a person with asthma lowers his or her risk of irritating sensitive airways. A few avoidance techniques include: keeping the home clean and well ventilated, using an air conditioner in the summer monthsÃ when pollen and mold counts are high, and getting an annual influenza vaccination.Of course, asthma sufferers should avoid tobacco smoke altogether. Cigar, cigarette, or pipe smoke is a trigger whether the patient smokes or inhales the smoke from others. Smoke increases the risk of allergic sensitization in children, increases the severity of symptoms, and may be fatal in children who already have asthma. Many of the risk factors for developing asthma may also provoke asthma attacks, and people with asthma may ha ve one or more triggers, which vary from individual to individual. The risk can be further reduced by taking medications that decrease airway inflammation. Most exacerbations can be prevented by the combination of avoiding triggers and taking anti-inflammatory medications.An exception is physical activity, which is a common trigger of exacerbations in asthma patients. However, asthma patients should not necessarily avoid all physical exertion, because some types of activity have been proven to reduce symptoms. Rather, they should work in conjunction with a doctor to design a proper training regimen, which includes the use of medication. In order to diagnose asthma, a healthcare professional must appreciate the underlying disorder that leads to asthma symptoms and understand how to recognize the condition through information gathered from the patient's history, physical examination, measurements of lung function, and allergic status.Because asthma symptoms vary throughout the day, th e respiratory system may appear normal during physical examination. Clinical signs are more likely to be present when a patient is experiencing symptoms; however, the absence of symptoms upon examination does not exclude the diagnosis of asthma.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Ben Franklin and Frederick Douglass are the most prominent figures in American history who fought for freedom and equal rights, democracy and racial equality. Frederick Douglass was one of the most important figures in anti-slavery and civil rights movement which took place in the 19th century. Ben Franklin was a scientist, politician, diplomat and author. His social and political activity coincided with consolidation and creation of the nation and for this reason his liberal ideas had a great impact on formation of the nation. Thesis For both Franklin and Douglass, escape from oppressive circumstances became a turning point in their careers giving rise to political and social activity. The themes of survival and escape are closely connected with family background and early life of both men. Benjamin Franklin was of a family that for generations had lived by the sweat of its brow. Like his ancestors for generations back, he was bred to a trade through a long apprenticeship. That he became a journalist was not altogether accident. His Uncle Benjamin and his maternal grandfather had been versifiers, and his elder brother had become printer of the fourth newspaper set up in New England. Franklin describes his experience: Ã¢â¬Å"I disliked the trade and had a strong inclination to go to sea, but my father declared against it. But residing near the water I was much in it and on itÃ¢â¬ 1. 1. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). (Macmillan, 1914), 7 Moreover, he learned early that writing, if one has a mastery of it, is useful for creating and controlling the opinions of men. The story of his teaching himself to write is generally known. Frederick Douglass was born a slave in 1818, and raised by his grandparents. Historians suppose that Ã¢â¬Å"DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ grandmother, Betsy Bailey, was the central figure in his early years1. In contrast to Franklin oppression and slavery were the driven forces which forced Douglass to escape from. At their twenties, Franklin and Douglass Ã¢â¬ËescapedÃ¢â¬Ë and run to big cities looking for job and career opportunities. At the age of 20, Douglass escaped from his master and went to New Bedford, Massachusetts. Ã¢â¬Å"No longer in the clutches of slavery, he was ready to take the next steps in his career as an orator, a preacher, and an abolitionistÃ¢â¬ 2. It was a watershed in his life. Ã¢â¬Å"This battle with Mr. Covey was the turning-point in my career as a slave. It rekindled the few expiring embers of freedom, and revived within me a sense of my own manhoodÃ¢â¬ 3. At the age of 18, Franklin broke indenture and run to Philadelphia. During a year, he worked for Samuel Keimer, a printer. On the October morning, 1723, when Franklin passed under the sign of the Bible, entered the shop of Bradford and asked for work, Samuel Keimer, a rival printer, had set up in the town. Bradford had nothing for the lad to do, but gave him a home and sent him to Keimer, by whom he was soon employed. He describes Ã¢â¬Å"I have been the more particular in this description of my journey, and shall be so of my first entry into that city, that you may in your mind compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made thereÃ¢â¬ 3. 1. Lampe, G. P. Frederick Douglass: FreedomÃ¢â¬â¢s Voice, 1818-1845. (Michigan State University Press 1998), 27. 2. Ibid, 26 3. Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1997. http://sunsite. berkeley. edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/ 4. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). (Macmillan, 1914), 24 During a few months all went well, and Franklin spent his time courting and printing. Franklin was sent to Boston with a letter to Josiah, a printer. Josiah refused to take him, and Benjamin came back to Keith, who now dispatched him on a foolÃ¢â¬â¢s errand to London. He sailed with the belief that he was to have letters of introduction and letters of credit that he was to buy types, paper, and a press, and return to America a master printer. He reached London to find Keith a knave and himself a dupe. After the escape, both men started active political and social activity. Douglass became a lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. He started publishing activity and published several newspapers including Ã¢â¬Å"New National EraÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Frederick Douglass WeeklyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"The North StarÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ PaperÃ¢â¬ , etc. He made friends with Wendell Phillips and William Lloyd Garrison. During the Civil War, he was an adviser to President Abraham Lincoln. Philadelphia during 1727 to 1757 was a town of remarkable intellectual activity. During 1727-1730, Franklin emerges as the chief political leader and scientist, the energizing, galvanizing source of two-thirds of the townÃ¢â¬â¢s important enterprises 1. In autobiography, Douglass creates a vivid image of slavery as Ã¢â¬Å"a burdenÃ¢â¬ with deprives many people a chance to be free from oppression and humiliation. There is intensity of illusion because the author is presÃ ¬ent, constantly reminding readers of his unnatural wisdom. The moral quality of both works depends not on the validity of doctrines, but on the moral sense and arguments presented in the work. In both books, a certain amount of plot is based on emotional response. For Franklin, escape became a turning point in his career and world views. It was at this time that Benjamin founded the Junto, wrote his famous epitaph, 1. Lampe, G. P. Frederick Douglass: FreedomÃ¢â¬â¢s Voice, 1818-1845. (Michigan State University Press, 1998), 28, 2. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). (Macmillan, 1914),. 27 in grew religious, composed a liturgy for his own use 1. For instance, to get a circulation Philadelphia Franklin resorted to clever expedients. He strove to make the Ã¢â¬Å"GazetteÃ¢â¬ amuse its readers, and to persuade the readers to write for the Ã¢â¬Å"Gazette;Ã¢â¬ for he well knew that every contributor would buy a dozen copies of the paper containing his piece from sheer love of seeing himself in print. Necessity to survive and hardship had a great impact on their moral values and views. Douglass supported equal rights movement and fight for emancipation in England where he earned the nickname Ã¢â¬Å"The Black OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnellÃ¢â¬ . After the Civil war, Douglass was selected the President of the Reconstruction-era FreedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s SavingÃ¢â¬â¢s Bank; Minister-General to the Republic of Haiti and marshal of the district of Columbia. In 1862 Frederick Douglass described him as a Ã¢â¬Å"miserable tool of traitors and rebelsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"quite a genuine representative of American prejudice and negro hatredÃ¢â¬ 1. For many Americans, religious norms represent the main code of values and norms determining specific mode of conduct personally and socially preferable. To some extent, this way of thinking gives strength and flexibility to both men who reflect their own identification with an entity Ã¢â¬â the nation. Desire for independence and self-identity can be interpreted as distinctively Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ feature and unique style of life. The first acknowledged master of American literary expression, Franklin is also in the heroic tradition of American humor. FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s humor and wit-the gentle touch that won menÃ¢â¬â¢s hearts and affections and the bite of satire that disconcerted the enemies of America and the opponents of freedom and progress-reveal him in his most creative aspect as a pioneer of the American personality. His spirit of fair play, tolerance and compromise for the better good of all have elicited, over the years, the 1. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). (Macmillan, 1914), 68. 2. Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1997. http://sunsite. berkeley. edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/ respectful admiration of Americans and the love of the whole world. Though vivid images and ideas of survival expressed in his work, Douglass appealed to emotions of slaves talking about ideas of independence, freedom and equal rights. Douglass writes: Ã¢â¬Å"It was enough to chill the blood and stiffen the hair of an ordinary man to hear him talk. Scarce a sentence escaped him but that was commenced or concluded by some horrid oathÃ¢â¬ 1. Douglas did not believe in arguments against slavery, supposing that common sense and moral values were higher than any religion. Always loyal to this broad notion of what is real, Douglass tends to seek a mode of radicalizing viewing. In 1872, Frederick Douglass became the Vice President of the United States and was the first African-American who had occupied this high position. For both men, escape becomes a symbol of future and hopes. Franklin and Douglass paved the way in accordance with life expectations and aims coined by hardship and necessity to survive. Their style encompassed a respect for human dignity transcending the limitations of color, a defense of the rights of the press and of freedom of speech and conscience, a concern for the liberty of every man to worship God in his own way, a regard for education and learning and for arts and letters, a sincere belief in equality of opportunity and condition that expressed itself in a concern to prevent excessive wealth and extreme poverty, and a passionate belief in the future greatness of America. 1. Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1997. http://sunsite. berkeley. edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/ Works Cited 1. Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1997. 30 April 2007 http://sunsite. berkeley. edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/ 2. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). Macmillan, 1914. 3. Lampe, G. P. Frederick Douglass: FreedomÃ¢â¬â¢s Voice, 1818-1845. Michigan State University Press, 1998. 4. Shenk, Joshua Wolf. The Myth of Lincoln, Reconstructed. The American Prospect. 12, February 26, 2001, p. 36.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The point being made is that John knows it is his fault and the consequence of it is he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t let go of her because he knows the truth about the arrest. He is reassuring her that nothing is going to happen to her. Ã¢â¬ËYou will not go! Ã¢â¬Ë (Act 2 pg 63) Proctor knows that this is all a mistake but knowing it is his. Proctor argues with Mr Cheever that she is innocent and the courts are wrong. Proctor is running out of options he will do anything, even confess about his relationship to get her back. John knows that he is the only one to save his wife and he told her so. For this reason, John is a man of his word. In the previous Act he said Ã¢â¬ËI will bring you homeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Act 2 pg 63). We have known John to be a man of his word when he says to Abigail that he will cut off his hand and that he will bring Elizabeth back. He stopped what he said before, subsequently he is going to bring Elizabeth back knowing what he said to his wife, he knows Elizabeth has faith in him Ã¢â¬ËOh, John, bring me soon! Ã¢â¬Ë (Act 2 pg 63). So John has to prove to the judge that his wife is innocent and Abigail accused her just to get John back so Elizabeth canÃ¢â¬â¢t have him. Previously the audience know that John is a man of his word and proof of this is what he is doing. John is so sure that he is going to persuade Danforth that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need a lawyer. Ã¢â¬ËI am no lawyerÃ¢â¬â¢ (Act 3 pg 74) JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence is leading him to save his wife then again being a man of his word. He has no care, even if he his going to go prison, he has try and save his wife. Options are running out for John. He has told the court about his affair with Abigail and said to Danforth that his wife will never lie. Ã¢â¬ËThat woman will never lieÃ¢â¬â¢. (Act 3 pg 74) He completely has faith in his wife, but if his wife will deny of the affair then John will be arrested on charges of contempt of court. Firstly John said that he would go to court, exactly what he said he will do. Proctor said he will admit to adultery saying his wife will never lie; he has absolute faith in her. As a result Elizabeth told her first ever lie because John isnÃ¢â¬â¢t worth sacrificing. The audience see that Elizabeth does still love him. Also the audience see that John is entirely a man of his word. John is an ordinary man because he has committed sin! His wife is in prison because of him; hence it is his duty to save her. Proctor is neither an ordinary man nor a saint. Ã¢â¬ËI cannot mount like a gibbet like a saintÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Ë (Act 4 pg 113) A saint is someone who is near to pure and has done something very important in order to change the world. He is angry with the court for saying he is evil but knows that they are the evil ones and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make a difference if he lies. John has done something good but it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite there- spiritually developed. John could confess to be a witch. In addition it does not matter to him because he has done the worst sin there is compared to lying but he has to sign the papers. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦ sign your testimonyÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Ë (Act 4 pg 113) John does not want to sign the papers because of his name and for his children. John is an ordinary man because he wants his life but knows the cost of what he wants and stops himself because he wants to see his children grow into men. Ã¢â¬ËI want to live. Ã¢â¬Ë(Act 4 pg 110). So basically which man does not want his life? Evidently he is an ordinary man; he does not want to die. The audience know John is an ordinary man but a changing ordinary man. John is churning in the crucible and nearly ready to be purified; John knows saving himself will cost another life, but he can put a full stop to it. John is a good man. John believes if he lives and others die for his life that is wrong. Ã¢â¬ËI speak my own sins; I cannot judge another. I have no tongue for it. Ã¢â¬Ë (Act 4 pg 113). This means that he can talk his own sin but not others or that he will not accuse others for his own life. Proctor thinks not for himself but his children. He needs to give them a good name. Ã¢â¬ËI have confessed myself! Ã¢â¬ ¦ no good penitence but it be publicÃ¢â¬â¢ (Act 4 pg 114) and Ã¢â¬Ëleave my name! Ã¢â¬Ë (Act 4 pg 115). Proctor says because his conscience says he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want a bad name for his children. He thinks that having his life means his children will have bad names and others will suffer. Also he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want sign his confession especially for the public. Proctor is a fully spiritually developed man. He has refused to sign the paper, meaning his spoken confession is not counted. This gave him time to think and when conscious, spoke up. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦ What others say and what I sign to is not the same! Ã¢â¬Ë (Act 4 pg 115). Proctor knew or I shall I say he realised that his written confession would kill more people and only save himself. However if he dies, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a full stop to all this nonsense. Proctor died to save others. The audience finally see the changed man for what he really is. Miller influences the audience in the way he refuses to sign and knew exactly what the consequence was going to be. John sees the shred of goodness in him, saying that he is white and should be kept away from dogs. The white symbolises the goodness and the dogs are the court. The dogs are the evil people from mythology, if dogs guarding hell and should be away from goodness; white. The decision he made was to stop everything bad and he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t go to hell because of what he has done. It makes John a good man, meaning his spiritual development is complete because he is dead and canÃ¢â¬â¢t change anymore. John Proctor should have his shred of Ã¢â¬ËgoodnessÃ¢â¬â¢ because he has been churning long enough in the crucible pot. John Proctor is ready and purified and is a good man. He is finally, as I have mentioned, put a full stop to further deaths, being hung for witchcraft. This fact as it was proved in the Milgram experiment- where people would take another personÃ¢â¬â¢s life without giving a second thought and were told to go even further, until they would die, Proctor was that person and did not listen. Furthermore, John was a final seal and said no more names, deaths or accusations and they were stopped. The government in March 1712 after a solemn meeting declared a democracy in Salem. All were compensated with their land, money and a good name for beloved people who died tragically in the witch trials. The ways the audience see Ã¢â¬ËThe CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢, is concerned with spiritual development of John. He is linked to all key events in the play, and still Arthur Miller showed how a man changed and died to save a state, in order to save other people and the good name of Proctor.Ã 1 Umer Hussain Essay- The Crucible. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section.