Wednesday, November 27, 2019
On Invisible Bullets Paper An outline on Invisible Bullets As we analyze the essay, we realize that the writer discusses a material in each paragraph, and carefully relates it to the next paragraph. He supports his ideas with concrete examples related to the main topic sentence, which is the relation between orthodoxy and subversion in HarriotÃ¢â¬â¢s book. In the first paragraph, we have a motivator mixed with a background of the ideas he wants to discuss. In the next paragraph he wisely supports that background by giving different examples. In the third paragraph he emphasizes on some specific words such as Ã¢â¬Å"religionÃ¢â¬ which he uses several times through the essay. For each paragraph, we can find a topic sentence, and through the paragraph he brings arguments and supports and examples for that topic sentence, which in general, is itself supporting the main topic sentence and the main idea of the text. The paragraphs follow each other very smoothly and the essay grows in an evolutionary way. Each part is the result of the previous part. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s quite a kind of classical text. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t have jumps and fragmentation. What attracts the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention is the use of quotation marks. Each time that he wants to use someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s words, he uses quotation marks, even if it contains only of one single word. We will write a custom essay sample on On Invisible Bullets specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on On Invisible Bullets specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on On Invisible Bullets specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The use of punctuation is also very eye catching. As we go through out the essay, we see that he makes the most benefit of each subject matter and each example and discusses them from all possible related points of view. So he is very good at supporting his idea. He gives us a fool complete satisfying argumentation. He had made benefit of every word or phrase written by Harriot which can be used in order to support his discussion. In the last three paragraphs he repeats his main ideas such as Ã¢â¬Å"the condition of powerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"continuity of subversionÃ¢â¬ ; and even in the few last sentences, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t ignore the use of HarriotÃ¢â¬â¢s words and ideas.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
To What Extent, In Your Opinion, Is Shylock A Complete and Inhuman Villain Essay Example To What Extent, In Your Opinion, Is Shylock A Complete and Inhuman Villain Essay To What Extent, In Your Opinion, Is Shylock A Complete and Inhuman Villain Essay Essay Topic: Opinion Play The way in which Shylock is played on stage has changed greatly since the play was first performed, when he was made out to be a villain and a clown. This altered in the nineteenth century when Shylock was portrayed as an intelligent man who had been victimised. Undoubtedly, Shakespeare did not write Shylock as a simple, one- sided part. To a modern audience, Shylock is sometimes a villain and sometimes a victim. However, in Shakespearian times, they would have had the much simpler view that Shylock was in the wrong and they (The Christians) were right. In Shakespearian England anti- Semitism was rife. Jews were widely regarded as evil and the entire community had been expelled from England in 1290. Jews were persecuted worldwide and forced to live their lives in ghettos. Audiences in the Elizabethan era who were predominately Christians would have delighted in Shylocks defeat, where as todays society is multicultural and diverse, hence we may have an entirely different view on this topic. Throughout the play we hear evidence that would justify Shylocks wickedness towards Christians, you call me misbeliever, cut- throat dog. Anyone who is called these names, spat upon and spurned is not going to behave in a polite way towards the source of rudeness. Depicted as a villain to many readers, Shylock shows his true feelings towards Antonio, aside to the audience, I hate him for he is a Christian. As well as proving his hatred of Christians, this does nothing for the sympathy towards him from the audience; A Shakespearian audience would immediately dislike Shylock. He also states that Antonio lends out money gratis. This shows that Shylocks reasons for hating Antonio are not only because he is a Christian and the way he treats Shylock and fellow Jews, but also the fact that he lends money to people without charging interest, hence which adversely affects Shylocks livelihood. This open display of greed and hatred makes Shylock even more an unsympathetic character. Furthermore, Shylocks hatred for Antonio can build up the dislike of himself to Christians, as they see Antonio as a fellow being. Shylock is portrayed as narrow- minded, a characteristic associated with archetypical villains. Shylock displays elements of belligerence in his refusal to forgive Christians. When Bassanio invites Shylock to dinner, he refuses at first, I will not eat with you, nor drink with you. This shows his stubborn belief in the prodigal Christian and also the strong divide between religions. Eventually he goes in hate. During the play, we learn of Shylocks intent in taking Antonios life, if I can catch him once upon the hip, I will feed fat that ancient grudge I bear him. This adds to the audiences dislike of him as well as attaining a reverence of a true villain, as the audience are under the belief that Shylock will go to great lengths to take Antonios life. Shylock is uncaring and rough as a father towards his only daughter. When we first witness an interaction between them, Shylock orders her about as if she were a servant, hear you me, Jessica, lock up my doors and mentions nothing about her well- being, only the well- being of the house, let not the sound of shallow foppery enter my sober house. These comments made by Shylock show how his relationship with his daughter is very weak, harsh and strict. The audience then shows sympathy for Jessica and in turn have an aversion to Shylock. Moreover, Shylock never notices his daughters strange behaviour on the night she is due to elope- showing that Shylock is not a very attentive father. Perhaps he is too preoccupied with generating yet more wealth to concern himself with his only daughter. This view of him as self- serving and avaricious is compounded by his reaction to Jessica running away with a Christian. He is outraged that she has left and has stolen some of his money, I would my daughter were dead at my foot. It seems like he cares more for the money than Jessica, because we hear, oh my ducats more than my daughter. Again Shylock portrays himself in an unsympathetic way, as vindictive and villainous. He wishes for the death of his own daughter as the price for her treachery and even goes as far as to wish she were hearsed at my foot and the ducats in her coffin. This shows Shylock to be a cold, heartless man, devoid of parental feeling, who is focused purely on revenge and money. Another example of Shylocks villainy is in the courtroom. Here, he has the chance to show that he is far superior to the Christians. If Shylock were to show mercy to Antonio, then he would come out of the proceedings very well indeed. However, he presses on ruthlessly with his attempt to kill Antonio which, when he fails turns the audience against him. He is described, even by the Duke as a stony adversary, an inhuman wretch. As various people beg him to show mercy he only replies coldly, I will have my bond. Even when Bassanio offers him six times the original fee, he still refuses, I would not draw them, I would have my bond. All this installs hatred of him in the courtroom, as he sits sharpening his knife stating that there is no power in the tongue of man to alter me. Conversely, Shylock could be seen as the victim in this play. It could be argued that he has suffered a lot of racial abuse, maybe more often than an average Jew in the Venetian society. Shylock has been called names such as evil soul and devil incarnation, which portrays dislike towards him, probably due to his money lending occupation. However is it right to torment some just because they are of a different religion? Shylock is preyed upon by many Christians, but it seems by Antonio, more than any. Indeed Antonio seems to be the source of much of Shylocks abuse. He has disgraced me, laughed at my losses, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains and heated mine enemies and his reason, I am a Jew. Antonio also shows that that he has no remorse for what he has said and done to Shylock, he openly states he would call thee so again, spit on thee again . Here we can see how Shylock can have extra vengeance for Antonio and how no-one could blame him for being angry at this deliberate racism. When they first meet in the play, Shylock says, many a time and oft in the Rialto you have rated me. This shows how readily Shylock accepts being abused and installs our sympathy in him. It also displays how much Shylock has endured from haters. During the play it becomes obvious that the mistreatment of Shylock comes from Christians, therefore it is understandable that he has a certain loathing for them. In Venice, if a Jew wrong a Christian the Christian will seek revenge. So it seems only fair that if a Christian wrong a Jew, then the Jew will take lead and, by Christian example seek revenge too. Shylock also states that, the villainy you teach me I will execute. This implies that Shylock is not the villain, but only acting as he is treated himself. In addition Antonio lends money to people with no added interest. This limits Shylocks business as people would rather go to Antonio than Shylock. This can affect the livelihood of Shylock and make us feel sorry for him. Another aspect of how Shylock is victimised is the fact that Antonio accepted the offer with a lawyer present and therefore understood the consequences in place if he could not repay the bond. He should have never signed it if he was not prepared to accept the forfeit. Antonios stubbornness caused himself to be in such a position. He wanted to gain the upper hand over Shylock when his ships return with thrice three times the value of this bond. However when all did not go to plan, Antonio was stuck in a very difficult position. By law Shylock had the power to fulfil the bond and kill Antonio. In Shylocks attempts to retrieve his debt by going to court, he is humiliated even more. He endures many more anti- Semitic comments; devil here he comes in the likeness of a Jew. Here it shows his dehumanisation even in court where there is to be justice. They call an outcast of society and criminals who have committed unthinkable acts, devils. Subsequently, this shows that Shylock walked into a courtroom full of biased Christians ready to tear him apart, because of his religion. This gives us the idea that they may not know Shylock, but because of his religion they are, at first glance, classing him an outcast. The Christians also seek to torment Shylock even when he is most vulnerable, such as when Jessica elopes with Lorenzo. Christians invite Shylock out to dinner the night his daughter is stolen from him, so this betrays his trust in them even further. When he speaks to Salerio he mocks him about the disappearance of his daughter, thats certain: I, for my part, knew the tailor that made the wings she flew withal. This proves how much Shylock is mocked in his life, even after the people closest to him have deserted him. He was a protective father and just wants the best for Jessica. When the carnival is going on outside he wants to keep Jessica away from the Christians, clamber not you up to the casements then, nor thrust your head into the public street. He quite rightly says this considering the way he is treated by Christians. He loves his daughter and does not want her to get hurt. In addition, the fact that Jessica stole some of his money and valuable Jews makes us feel sorry for Shylock even more. All his life he has worked hard to earn his money and it has been snatched away from him. We also learn that Jessica has stolen and then given away the ring of Shylocks wife for a monkey. Shylock cries out and says, I would not have given it for a wilderness of monkeys. This shows how mush Jessica has hurt him and we are deeply sympathetic. Shylock is nai ve in the way that he believes he can take on the Christians when the foundation of Venetian law is designed to serve the best interests of the Christians. Shylocks punishment is harsh- he has to give up all of his wealth to his enemies and become a Christian, he is left with nothing. Here we see Shylock, an utterly broken man and our heart goes out to him. Then, at the end of the play, in the last act, we learn that everyone is happy, everyone apart from Shylock, who does not feature. This leaves us speculating what happened to him and we feel for him, wondering what he is doing while everyone else is happy and peaceful. Stereotypically, it seems that the villain is punished and the treat is over. However, although Shylock pursues his revenge fervently, he still has the audiences sympathy because of the unfair and callous punishment he receives. It strikes a modern day audience as unjust that the severity of his punishment reflects not his crime, but his race. He is a victim of the Christians intolerance of other races and ideas. In all, I believe that Shylock is merely a victim in this story. He has the right to have vengeance for all he has suffered and to act as the Christians act towards him. He has been humiliated in a racist society where the Christians have no conscience in dehumanising and destroying a Jew. Furthermore, his only daughter runs away with one of his persecutors. She steals his money and the ring his wife gave him. It seems justified that he should feel betrayed and hurt. Shylock only demanded a bond that Antonio had accepted to. It could be argued that if Antonio was not willing to die, then why did he consent to Shylocks contract in the first place. We can only guess at how Shakespeare intended Shylock to be played. He becomes throughout the play, an increasingly lone figure and is portrayed by Shakespeare to be in some ways very human. Shakespeare could have decided to show Shylock completely defeated at the end of the play, not even to have his religion to hold on to, which would indicate that he was intended to be a villain. On the other hand, I think Shylock was intended to be a victim and was created to challenge the pre- conceptions and ideologies of the Elizabethan era. Also I think that he is not a villain because he inspires too much empathy in an audience. Having said all this, I believe that it is no useful for us to simply categorise Shylock as either victim or villain. Through Shylock, Shakespeare explores the way in which the line between the oppressed and the oppressor can become vague.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
On the Influence of Gender and Age on Cyber Bulling - Research Proposal Example However, with the advancements in information technology have arisen insecurity issues. Insecurity issues have in turn sparked far reaching implications to the users. In particularly, insecurity issues in information technology have been closely associated with internet usability. This comes when the usefulness of internet cannot be presently overemphasized. It is for this reason that information technology and security issues become critical. Important, though, have been the concerns on how to address these forms of insecurity. Background of the Problem The aspect on information technology that is paramount to this discussion is cyber bullying and how whether or not it is affected by age or gender. According to Hopeline (2011), cyber bullying has emerged to be the newest platform on which the youths are increasingly abusing each other. The more concerning issue is that there are currently no appropriate techniques that intervene for cyber bullying despite large numbers of kids who a ccess the information technologies. Internet and cell phone communications have been cited as tools for Cyber bullying. According to Hopline, what appalls even more is that Cyber bullying occurs during kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ class time. Hopline cites that cyber bullying has far reaching implications on kids, so that the victims (kids) of cyber bullying only feel safe when in their bedrooms. This clearly shows that it does not under all circumstances hold that cyber bullying causes physical harm. However, cyber bullying is mostly associated with causation of harmful emotional fallout which may cumulate to other far reaching consequences. It is factual that kids are major victims of cyber bullying. It is also true that cyber... This essay says that the researcher has set out research questions in an attempt to identifying specific considerations to make in order to achieve the purposes outlined above. The research questions are said to have very close relation with the purpose of the study in the sense that the research questions are going to be tackled during research work. Successful completion of this research work will come with a lot of significance to a lot of people, especially primary and secondary students. This report shall be conventional to the guidelines of the Ethics of a University. Before starting the process of handling the questionnaires to the children, letters shall be sent to parents and to head-teachers, describing the nature of the study. These letters will serve the purpose of informing them about the content of the questionnaire. The main aim additionally, shall be to confirm about the confidentiality of the study. In this respect, parents shall sign the parental consent forms as an approval for their children to participate in the study. In this regard, they shall have one week deadline to send them back to the researcher. It shall also be required that teachers and head-teachers approve the study. This, therefore, necessitated that this researcher inform them about the study, the collection of data, and the process to be followed and about the privacy of the questionnaires. It is also worth noting that teachers will be informed that they will be present during the proc ess of the survey and if they have any objection that need be discussed with the researcher.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Managed Health Care Delivery with Healthcare Reform Act - Essay Example These legislative developments will no doubt bring about tremendous changes in the managed care sector impact immensely on the system of care delivery. Studying managed healthcare relative to the Health Care Reform Act is therefore a very important topic affecting healthcare professionals, care providers, medical students, policy makers and other stakeholders. The Act will particularly have far reaching impacts on models of business for insurance providers and the Managed HealthCare Sector. Insurers and self funded care plans for instance are required to overhaul some practices of underwriting as well as structures of benefit. The act will therefore see insurers receive more customers since most Americans are expected to acquire covers or attract penal measures. Ultimately premium rates expected to hike as insurers struggle with costs of registering new clients some with very high costs of medication. Another area of concern to the Health Care Reform Act has to do with compensation for physicians especially given the amount and nature of work given the changes that will be occasioned by the reforms. The future of managed healthcare is thus going to be marred with a myriad of changes all in the best interest of the patient in America. It is important for these reasons that I believe this is as very relevant and timely topic for students in the entire medical field. In this article, the author reflects on physician compensation, cost and quality in the U.S. He also explains three ways to reimburse physicians for services rendered; the ways are salary, capitation, or fee for service. Physicians reimbursed on the basis of salary receive a certain sum at the end of every month or year worked. Those on capitation schedule receive their payments commensurate with the number of patients attended to or the number of patients placed under their responsibility. On the other hand, professionals compensated based on fee-for-service receive payment for
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Speech - Essay Example The avialability of a male figure in the family is important for the complete development of the children. In a family, the father offers a sense of security to both the children and a mother (Rosenberg & Wilcox, 2006). He assumes the responsibility of assuring everyone in the family that no matter what everything will be okay. According to a report by ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau, emphasize fathers provide a sense of physical and economic security that helps in healthy development of the children. He gives a sense of peace to the mother who knows she has someone she can rely on to love and protect her (Vacca, 2013). According to research, families without fathers are likely to suffer economically compared to families with fathers. It implies fathers are important for the economic status of families. In addition, fathers are key factors in the cognitive development of their children. I am certain that those who had a chance to be taught how to read, write or ride a bike by their dads still remember those moments with nostalgia (Strauss, 2014). The presence of a caring father will always be a source of immense of happiness and peace of mind for the whole family. In conclusion, fathers are critical to family stability and healthy development of children. Fathers offer the basic sense of security to the mother and children. They are the male figures for developing children. The presence of fathers at the home is a necessity that we cannot afford to overlook. Vacca, J. J. (2013). The Parenting Process from the Fathers Perspective: Analysis of Perceptions of Fathers about Raising Their Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Best Practice in Mental Health, 9(2),
Friday, November 15, 2019
Genes Encoding HLA Antigens The genes encoding HLA antigens are clustered on chromosome 6p21 at the telomeric end of the HLA region. Relatively few HLA class I genes are transcribed or translated.The expressed class I genes are subdivided into class Ia, which includesHLA-A, -B,and -C, and class Ib, which includes HLA-E, -F, and -G. As a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, HLA-G is expressed predominantly and restrictedly in extravillous trophoblast cells at maternalÃ¢â¬âfetal interface. Alternative transcription of spliced HLA-G mRNAs encodes at least seven different HLA-G iso- forms, namely the membrane-bound HLA- G1, -G2, -G3 and -G4, and the soluble HLA-G5 and -G6 and Ã¢â¬âG7 proteins (1, 2). Experiments in vitro showed that HLA-G may contribute to maternal acceptance of the semi-allogenic fetus, by suppressing the maternal immune system during.it has been shown to bind to the immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)-2 and killer inhibitory receptor (KIR)2DL4 (p49) inhibitory r eceptors on NK cells and confer protection to extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) via these receptors (3)(Figure2). This suggests that the interaction between HLA-G and immunocompetent cells at the placental interface could be critical in determining the outcome of pregnancy. In this regard, it may be helpful to look for deviations in these interactions by studying early pregnancy disorders of unknown aetiology (4). Among its several limited polymorphisms, the 14-bp ins/del polymorphism at 3Ã ´ untranslated region (3Ã ´UTR) of HLA-G gene has been shown an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G molecule(5). Reports indicated that 14-bp polymorphism is associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and isoform alternative splicing patterns, therefore may influence functionality of HLA-G in pregnancy (6). In the present study, we analysed the 14-bp insertion Ã¢ â deletion polymorphism in normal pregnancy and recurrent miscarriage patients with different miscarriage frequencies and discovered a possible correlation between the 14-bp polymorphism and recurrent miscarriage. Material and methods We carried out a caseÃ¢â¬âcontrol study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from iranian women who had been seen at the infertility center in Yazd city during 2013 to 2014 for the evaluations of recurrent miscarriage. All of these women had regular menstrual cycles and were health. We analyzed a total of 200 patients with three or more recurrent spontaneous abortions (as a case group) and 200 healthy women without any history of abortion (as a control group). During the entire investigation period the current laws of ethical committee were followed; the patients gave their informed consent for use of their blood collected. Studied patients were without anatomical, microbial, viral, genetical disease and hormone profile tests and tests for ovulation and tubal patency were normal. Male partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s semen analysis were included in the study. According to medical evidences, etiology of these abortions are unexplained. The following data for the patients were obtained: age, age at each abortion, numbers of abortions, time of abortion during each pregnancy, familial history of abortion, occurrence of bleeding and pain during abortion. Genotyping of the 14-bp insertion Ã¢ â deletion polymorphism The blood samples of the control group and of the patients were collected in tubes containing EDTA. The molecular analyses were performed using DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes with a routine salting out procedure. The 14-bp insertion Ã¢ â deletion polymorphism was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplification was done using the forward primer 5Ã ´-GTGATGGGCTGTTTAAAGTGTCACC-3Ã ´ and the reverse primer 5Ã ´-GGAAGGAATGCAGTTCAGCATGA-3Ã ´ for the HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism analysis. PCR products were run on 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The sizes of the PCR products were confirmed by sequence analysis. The PCR products of exon 8 were analysed by 10% nondenaturing poyacrylamidel gel electrophoresis containing ethidium bromide and visualized under ultraviolet light. PCR products were of either 224 or 210 bp, respectively,depending on the insertion/deletion of the 14 bp in exon 8. The cycling conditions used were: 94 Ã °C for 5 min; 35 cycles of 94 Ã °C for 1 min, 55 Ã °C for 1 min, 72 Ã °C for 30 s; and a final cycle extension at 72 Ã °C for 5 min. Statistical analysis The data were analyzed by using the Chi-square test in the presence and absence of 14-bp insertion Ã¢ â deletion polymorphism expressing individuals. Odds ratio was calculated with a confidence interval of 95 %. The data were processed by SPSS 16 software. The significance level of the tests for considering Pvalues as significant was set to Results HLA-G genotype frequencies were in agreement with a HardyÃ¢â¬âWeinberg equilibrium in this study. Depending on the 14-bp deletion homozygotes, 14-bp insertion homozygotes or +14-bp Ã¢ â-14- bp heterozygotes of exon-8, the size of the amplified PCR products was either 224 or 210 bp or both in the case of heterozygotes (Figure 1) and was confirmed by DNA sequencing (Figure 2). Our results showed that both the +14-bp Ã¢ â-14- bp and -14-bp Ã¢ â-14-bp genotype frequencies were not significantly different between patients with recurrent miscarriages and fertile controls. However, the genotype frequency of +14-bp Ã¢ â +14-bp homozygotes was significantly increased in those with recurrent abortions (three or more abortions) as compared with normal fertile controls. The mean age in the case group was: 35.3 yr Ã ± 5.8 (range 19Ã¢â¬â43), the mean age in the control group was: 34.9 yr Ã ± 3.2, (range 20Ã¢â¬â41) (Pvalue =0.40), in addition, some features of patients shown in Table 1. Distribution of the genotypes in the RSA patient and control groups is shown in Table 2. Frequencies were consistent with those previously reported by other investigators. (p value =) Discussion For more than two decades, the non-classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule HLA-G has been supposed to be an important immunoloregulation molecule in the maintenance of foetalÃ¢â¬âmaternal immunotolerance. HLA-G has the ability to inhibite immune cell functions like natural killer cells, cytotoxic T cells and dentritic cells. In our study, we focused on the 14-bp deletion Ã¢ â insertion polymorphism in the 3Ã ´ UTR of exon 8 of the HLA-G gene,which may contribute to the regulation of HLA-G expression. Our results showed that there were more women who were heterozygous in RSA group than in the fertile controls. Also the frequency of the +14-bp variant showed a significant increase in patients with three or more miscarriages. Thus, our data suggest that there is a detectable relationship between susceptibility to recurrent miscarriages and +14-bp homozygotes of the HLA-G locus.A report by Hviid et al. showed a significant over representation of the 14-bp +Ã¢ â + 14-bp HLA-G genotype in a recurrent miscarriage group. Although no significant difference was observed for the 14-bp +Ã¢ â+14-bp genotype between the recurrent miscarriage and the control groups in their study, the same trend was found by Yan et al. Their hypothesis was that the frequencies of the HLA-G genotype, homozygous for the + 14-bp sequence, would be higher in women with several unsuccessful IVF treatments or with recurrent miscarriage than in control groups. This hypothesis was based on a previously published study. HLA-G alleles may result in different levels of HLA- G proteins. To date, the 14-bp deletion has been assigned to the G*010101, G*0102 and G*010401 alleles, and the 14-bp insertion to the G*010102, G*010103, G*0103, G*0105N and G*0106 alleles. Rebmann et al. reported that alleles G*01013 and G*0105N with the +14-bp sequence are known as Ã¢â¬ËlowsecretorÃ¢â¬â¢ alleles, and are associated with reduced soluble HLA-G levels . Thus, The 14-bp insertion in ex on 8 of the HLA-G gene may be associated with low levels of plasma soluble HLA-G. Low concentrations of soluble HLA-G in maternal serum appear to be correlated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in IVF pregnancies .If the HLA-G Ã¢â¬Ëlow-secretorÃ¢â¬â¢ allele is a factor involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent miscarriage, one would expect an increase in the number of carriers with the number of recurrent miscarriages , which is in agreement with the results of this study. The HLA-G 14 bp insertion Ã¢ â deletion polymorphism may, in turn, affect the serum levels of sHLA-G and pregnancy maintenance, although the exactm mechanisms will require further study. The reason may be explained as follows, serum secreted HLA-G is conductive to early embryo implantation, as insufficient serum sHLA-G pro- motes trophoblasts attack by the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s immune cells induced by early embryonic trophoblast invasion of spiral arteries. This can result in a loss of implantation andpregnancy mai ntenance, leading to embryo loss as unexplained recurrent miscarriage .Based on these observations, our data indicate that the difference in HLA-G 14-bp genotype frequencies is not highly significant in this study. Probably, HLA-G as a single factor has a very modest effect in relation to risk for recurrent miscarriage. However, more genotyping investigations and functional studies on immune regulation are essential to elucidate the role of HLA-G in pregnancy. HLA-G gene encodes four membrane-bound and three soluble HLA-G isoforms by alternative splicing (16). The 14- bp insertion/deletion polymorphismin exon 8 of the HLA-G gene has been reported to be associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and splicing patterns, thus may play a role in the context of HLA-G functionality during pregnancy (17). Few studies on 14-bp polymorphism have been carried out in the association with RSA to date. A study by Tripathi et al. (14) indicated that 14-bp polymorphism is not a susceptible risk factor fo r RSA, but the number of heterozygotes (14bp1/2) was increased in the RSA group. However, another study indicated that homozygosity for the presence of the 14-bp polymorphism was higher in women with RSA than in the control groups (13). Recently, a report by Hviid et al. (15) showed a significant over- representation of 14bp 1/1 HLA-G genotype in the RSA group. Although no significant difference was observed for the 14bp 1/1 genotype between the RSA and the control groups in the current study, the same trend was found. In regard to the frequency of 14bp 1/2 heterozygotes, our study is inconsistent with that by Tripathi et al. (14) where more number of heterozygotes was observed in the RSA group. The discrepancy may be the result of ethnic variations, for a significantly different distribution of the 14-bp genotype was observed among Chinese, Danish, and Indian populations (Table 2) (14, 15). The 14-bp polymorphisms are involved in the stability and splicing patterns of the HLA-G mRN A isoforms. A rather detailed study by Hviid et al. (10) addressed that the HLA-G isoform transcripts were at a significantly lower level than the corresponding HLA-G isoform mRNA with the 14-bp sequence deleted, and an additional alternative splicing pattern, especially the HLA-G2 mRNA, could be observed with the presence of the 14-bp sequence. In accordance with this, a study by Rebmann et al. reported that HLA-G allelic variants are associated with plasma-soluble HLA-G levels. Alleles G*01013 and G*0105N with the 14-bp sequence are known as Ã¢â¬Ëlow-secretorÃ¢â¬â¢ alleles, whereas alleles without the 14-bpsequence such as G*01041 are known as Ã¢â¬Ëhigh-secretorÃ¢â¬â¢ alleles, which are associated with elevated soluble HLA-G levels (18).Therefore, particular HLA-G alleles may result in different levels of HLA-G proteins. In the current study, higher frequencies of the 14-bpinsertion allele in RSA group may be a reflection of the association between the 14-bp insertion and the altered balance in HLA-G mRNA isoforms and probably the protein concentration. A recent report by Yie et al. (19) addressed that the embryos that express HLA-G benefit a higher in vitro fertilization rate. To the contrary, low soluble HLA-G seems to be correlated with an adverse pregnancy outcome (20). Taken together, our data indicated that the 14-bp insertion allele might have importance in the outcome of pregnancy. However, more genotyping investigations and functional studies on immune regulation are essential to elucidate the role of HLA-G in pregnancy.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Our first impression of Othello comes from a conversation between Iago, Roderigo, and Brabantio. Our second impression of him comes from Othello himself. The first two impressions conflict greatly, the second being more accurate than the first. Despite the way Othello is described in the first scene, he shows himself to be quite different in the second. Our first impression of Othello comes from a conversation between Iago, Roderigo, and Brabantio. Iago speaks of Othello with contempt. From the very first scene, he seems to be a hated character. Without even mentioning OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s name, the three men paint a picture of him as a scheming criminal who has stolen and raped BrabantioÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter. In calling Othello names like Ã¢â¬Å"an old black ramÃ¢â¬ (1.1.97), Ã¢â¬Å"the devilÃ¢â¬ (1.1.100), and Ã¢â¬Å"a Barbary horseÃ¢â¬ (1.1.125), Iago depicts Othello as evil and dirty. Brabantio announces that he would rather that Desdemona was with Roderigo than the Moor, when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"O, would you had had her!Ã¢â¬ (1.1.198). From this first scene, the audience gets a very negative impression of OthelloÃ¢â¬âone that differs greatly from the second impression. In the second scene, when we actually meet Othello, we see that he is not at all like how he was portrayed in the first scene. He is an honorable and honest man. When Iago tries to warn him of BrabantioÃ¢â¬â¢s anger, he refuses to go into hiding, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Let him do his spite. My services which I have doneÃ¢â¬ ¦ shall out-tongue his complaintsÃ¢â¬ ¦ I must be found. My parts, my title, and my perfect soul shall manifest me rightlyÃ¢â¬ (1.2.20-37). Othello is confident in his actions and refuses to run away like a coward, having done nothing wrong. Then, when OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s men meet up with BrabantioÃ¢â¬â¢s men, OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s wise words prevent a bloody conflict. He says Ã¢â¬Å"you shall more command with years than with your weaponsÃ¢â¬ ¦Hold your handsÃ¢â¬ ¦Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it without a prompterÃ¢â¬ (1.2.78-104). Obviously, from OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s smart words and logical actions, he is not the man that Iago, Roderigo and Brabantio m ade him seem to be. In conclusion, our first impression of Othello is inaccurate and inconsistentÃ with our second impression, which actually comes from Othello himself. The first time we meet Othello, we learn that the description of him, in the first scene, was biased, racist, and incorrect. All in all, our second impression of Othello is much more true to his actual character.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Once you have read the textbook chapter and the Reading, answer discussion questions 1, 3- 5 (ignore questions 2 and 6). Q1. Who is the Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ in the question Ã¢â¬Å"Why do we consume so much?Ã¢â¬ Is Juliet Schor correct that Ã¢â¬Å"there is increasingly little that we do which is not a consumption experienceÃ¢â¬ And that we have become a culture of excessive consumption? Explain your answers. The Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ in the question Ã¢â¬Å"why do we consume so much?Ã¢â¬ is stands for the majority of Americans those whose basic needs are met, who have discretionary income, the large middle classes whose standard of living has risen so dramatically over this century. Juliet Schor is correct that Ã¢â¬Å"there is increasingly little that we do which is not a consumption experienceÃ¢â¬ . For example, the average American home has increased by more than 50% since 1970s and the number of vehicles per person has increased. And we have become a culture of excessive consumption due to $20,000 outdoor grills, $17,000 birthday parties for teen girls FAO Schwartz, diamond studded bras at Victoria Secrets, professional appliances for people not home to cook, designer clothes for 6 year olds as well as $1000 bed sheets. Q3. Explain why Schor believes that Ã¢â¬Å"more leisured. Less consumerist lifestyles are structurally blockedÃ¢â¬ . Why canÃ¢â¬â¢t people simply choose to work less and enjoy more free time? Do you agree that working long hours encourages people to consume more? Schor believes that Ã¢â¬Å"more leisure, less consumerist lifestyles is structurally blockedÃ¢â¬ because we are undermining our quality of life, we fail to take enough leisure, and live excessively busy and stressful lives. People cannot simply choose to work less and enjoy more free time because the employers set work norms and schedules, and those are tied to jobs. A full-time worker is paid per person, not per hour, and the employers prefer to hire fewer people, as well as employees who work longer hours are more financially dependent on the firm. Also, the income that people earned determines the level of consumption. The more they earned, the more or luxury goods they are able to purchase. I do not agree that working long hours encourages people to consume more. I have some working experiences before. After working for the whole day, I felt very tired and I thought money does not come easily, so I would not buy as much as I earned. I would like to save it and buy wait until I think the price of the good I want to buy is acceptable and it is useful. Q4. Schor refers to the second structural feature that creates too much consumption as Ã¢â¬Å"the ecological biasÃ¢â¬ . What does she mean by this? Do you agree with her that it is serious? Schor means that people overuse of the ecological resources of the earth, which account for global warming, species extinction, ecosystem depletion, water shortages, deforestation and soil erosion. I absolutely agree with her that overuse of natural capital is serious because the rate of resource use, pollution, and ecological degradation exceeds earthÃ¢â¬â¢s absorptive and regenerative capacities. We are already beyond a sustainable relation with earth. If rest of the world lived like the Americans do, need an additional four planets to support this lifestyle. Q5. Explain why you agree or disagree with SchorÃ¢â¬â¢s contention that consumption has become a social competition. How has the old concept of Ã¢â¬Å"keeping up with the JonesesÃ¢â¬ changed? Do you agree that it is difficult for individuals to resist or drop out of the consumption competition? Explain why or why not. Yes, I agree with SchorÃ¢â¬â¢s contention that consumption has become a social competition because more and more people buy luxury goods to show off, whichÃ it stand for recognition, esteem, status, and even envy it confers. Especially young teenagers, they like to keep up with their classmates or schoolmates. As a result, branded goods were carried by students is obviously around the school. The old concept of Ã¢â¬Å"keeping up with the JonesesÃ¢â¬ has changed because AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ consumer aspirations now has become more vertical, which is in terms of economic and social standing. Young Americans regarded Rockefeller or Bill Gates who makes $100,000 a year or more as an important aspirational target. They are more squint towards a decent or comfortable standard of living. I agree that it is difficult for individuals to resist or drop out the consumption competition. Since everyone is using the latest products, we have to elevate ourselves as well. If we refused to upgrade our belonging, we will fall behind the others, it may account for inconvenience in our life. For example, nowadays, some homework has to type it out or submit online, if we do not have a laptop at home, then it will be troublesome and inconvenience. Thus, individuals are getting more and more difficult to drop put the consumption competition.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Hurricane Katrinas Impact Free Online Research Papers On August 29, 2005, one of the strongest hurricanes to impact the coast of the United States made landfall hitting southern Florida as a category 1. By August 29th, Hurricane Katrina reached the Gulf Coast smashing and destroying the city of New Orleans as a category 4. Many living in the city fled prior to the storm, but many believed the reminiscences of the storm wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be as bad as they thought and they stayed. As a result of New Orleans being below sea level, levees were placed around the city to keep the streets and homes from flooding. When the intensity of winds and mass flooding came from the storm, these levees broke, flooding nearly 80% of New Orleans leaving people homeless, jobless, and even some lifeless ( Caruso). Hurricane Katrina left a devastating impact on the city of New Orleans. On August 27th, prior to Hurricane KatrinaÃ¢â¬â¢s landfall, New OrleansÃ¢â¬â¢ Mayor Ray Nagin expressed his deep concern for the city and asked the people living there to evacuate voluntarily. Many began boarding up their homes and preparing to evacuate the city, but many people remained believing they could survive the hurricaneÃ¢â¬â¢s temper. By mid-afternoon on the 27th, Mayor Nagin made the evacuation mandatory. For those who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have money or waited too long to leave, a Ã¢â¬Å"refuge of last resortÃ¢â¬ was designed at the Louisiana Superdome. Ã¢â¬Å"When Hurricane Katrina came ashore on the 29th, approximately one million people had fled the cityÃ¢â¬ (Wikipedia). When Katrina made landfall, the storm dumped treacherous amounts of rain causing the levees around the city to break. The water behind these levees flooded the city leaving some places under 20 feet of water. As the storm pressed on, the flood waters continued to rise causing the streets to look more like rivers, and swept victims and their cars off into the depths. The worst hit area involved the levees at the Industrial Canal. The Lower Ninth, a huge residential area, was completely swamped leaving survivors homeless and claiming many lives of those who couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make it out in time (Wikipedia). Some of the life claiming and changing devastations from the hurricane were not only from flooding, but also dehydration from a lack of good water, infection, and even depression. Depression stemmed from loss of loved ones, loss of homes, and possessions that displaced over one million residents of the gulf states, mostly Louisiana. New Orleans, which was eighty percent under water, lost close to 180 thousand houses from the severity of the flooding (Climate). Many had their temporary displacement, in the safe haven better known as the New Orleans Super Dome, extended by having to move from their home town (Wikipedia). Although some people were fortunate to still have their home somewhat intact, they lacked the source of power and water to enhance the time to remodel it in a timely manner. New Orleans was in a state of disaster. Everybody once living in the city was either deceased, abandoned from their home, or evacuated not knowing if they could ever call New Orleans their Ã ¢â¬Å"homeÃ¢â¬ ever again. On August 29th, 2005, many people living in New Orleans lost everything to one of the greatest disasters to ever hit America, Hurricane Katrina. The near two thousand lives that were lost, the million plus that were displaced, and delayed federal aid for the people of New Orleans left this proud colorful culture in shambles. The devastation rendering a prominent U.S. city seem like a war torn third world country unrecognizable as suitable living and working space for its citizens; this may well be the worst natural disaster in the young history of the United States. Caruso, Kevin. Ã¢â¬Å"Hurricane Katrina 2005.Ã¢â¬ Suicide.org. 21 Jan. 2008 hurricanekatrina.com/hurricane-katrina-2005.html. Ã¢â¬Å"Climate of 2005 Summary of Hurricane Katrina.Ã¢â¬ National Climatic Data Center. 29 Dec. 2005. 21 Jan. 2008 ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/2005/katrina.html. Ã¢â¬Å"Effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans.Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia. Apr. 2007. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. 21 Jan. 2008 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effect_of_Hurricane_Katrina_on_New_Orleans. Research Papers on Hurricane KatrinaÃ¢â¬â¢s ImpactHip-Hop is ArtCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite Religion19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationThe Spring and AutumnNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceQuebec and CanadaCapital PunishmentEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
One of the hardest and most frustrating issues being faced by groups or certain individuals in the corporate world today is the vast difference in gender treatment. This is commonly known as the Ã¢â¬Å"glass ceilingÃ¢â¬ , which is defined by Buzzanell as the Ã¢â¬Å"focus on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s historic under representation in powerful organizational positions and the culmination point at which time women recognize the discriminatory practices, gender stereotypes, and individual biases that have hindered their advancement . The glass ceiling functions as a barrier to women (and minorities) as a group rather than to individual women. There appears to be no industry type without glass ceilings, no other similar form of structural plateauing, and no comparable barrier for white males. This blockage occurs in governmental, scientific, business, and educational organizations.Ã¢â¬ There are steps being made to try to change corporate cultures so that both males and females have equal opportunities, but as we learned, changes such as this take time, and in this case it is said that it could take up to a hundred years before women are receiving the same pay per dollar as men, given the same opportunities as men, and are looked at as being equal in ability to get the job done. Cultures develop over time and are historical, which we talked about in class. They are based on what has happened in the past and on the upbringing of those that shape the culture. If you see things in old ways, itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to act in new ways. This is what seems to be happening in the corporate world, because women are having such a hard time breaking into the male dominated culture of corporations that has been implemented all through history up until recently. It is encouraging to see that there is progress being made, but it is at somewhat of a slower rate than women hope for. In a study done by the PRWeek Magazine, a salary survey in March of 2000 said that women Ã¢â¬Å"wer... Free Essays on Glass Ceiling Free Essays on Glass Ceiling Business Week: Mexico: Strides and Setbacks for Woman The article begins by discussing some statistics in Mexico. Mexico is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s 13th largest economy and is ranked 48th in terms of gender development This is way below the average of highly industrialized countries. 25 years ago, only one of five Mexican women worked outside the home, compared to one of three today. The article discusses how today a woman governs Mexico City and another presides over the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest leftist opposition force, while the Senate is presided over by a woman, and two of the members of the cabinet of ministers are women. Women hold 17 percent of seats in the lower house of Congress and 15 percent of seats in the Senate. 14 percent of businesses are In 1994 Mexico linked up with Canada and the United States in the North American Free Trade Agreement. Since then, there have been many protests from sectors complaining trade between countries with such enormous differences has hurt them. According to the article women have been hit the hardest. NAFTA had opened up job opportunity but for low skilled jobs with poor conditions. The new market conditions have led women textile workers to be replaced by men and this has pushed many women into the Ã¢â¬Å"informal economy, where they have no social security or benefits.Ã¢â¬ (UNIFEM) When it comes to working at the same jobs as men women make 40 percent less than men. This article intrigued an interesting comparison of MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s strive for women to move up in the work force and The United States current glass ceiling. The glass ceiling is the invisible barrier that women have to move up the corporate latter. The glass ceiling theory first drew serious attention in 1991, when the glass ceiling commission was established as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. A study released that year by then Secretary of Labor Lynn Martin found that a glass ceiling does indeed exist, limiting the op... Free Essays on Glass Ceiling One of the hardest and most frustrating issues being faced by groups or certain individuals in the corporate world today is the vast difference in gender treatment. This is commonly known as the Ã¢â¬Å"glass ceilingÃ¢â¬ , which is defined by Buzzanell as the Ã¢â¬Å"focus on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s historic under representation in powerful organizational positions and the culmination point at which time women recognize the discriminatory practices, gender stereotypes, and individual biases that have hindered their advancement . The glass ceiling functions as a barrier to women (and minorities) as a group rather than to individual women. There appears to be no industry type without glass ceilings, no other similar form of structural plateauing, and no comparable barrier for white males. This blockage occurs in governmental, scientific, business, and educational organizations.Ã¢â¬ There are steps being made to try to change corporate cultures so that both males and females have equal opportunities, but as we learned, changes such as this take time, and in this case it is said that it could take up to a hundred years before women are receiving the same pay per dollar as men, given the same opportunities as men, and are looked at as being equal in ability to get the job done. Cultures develop over time and are historical, which we talked about in class. They are based on what has happened in the past and on the upbringing of those that shape the culture. If you see things in old ways, itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to act in new ways. This is what seems to be happening in the corporate world, because women are having such a hard time breaking into the male dominated culture of corporations that has been implemented all through history up until recently. It is encouraging to see that there is progress being made, but it is at somewhat of a slower rate than women hope for. In a study done by the PRWeek Magazine, a salary survey in March of 2000 said that women Ã¢â¬Å"wer...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Philosophy Theroy- Conclusion and Premises - Essay Example l of prevalent societal attitudes at the time of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s making, but could as easily be transferred to more modern times, forcing the viewer to focus on the psychological action occurring rather than the latest high-dollar computer graphic imagery or fast-moving car chase scene. The film opens as the judge in a courtroom informs the jury of its duties before releasing them into the jury room. As the judge speaks, the camera pans across the different faces of the men who comprise the jury as well as the big-eared wide-eyed boy defendant. As the judge gives his directions, he makes it clear that this is a capital murder case and, should the jury return with a guilty verdict, the sentence will be death. With this harsh task on their minds, the jury files quietly into the jury room, none of them looking at the defendant as they do so but with the defendant watching each one of them in turn. As the case is presented, it is made clear that the boy, just turned 18, is on trial for his life accused of having killed his own father in an angry knife attack and then callously removing himself from the home to go watch a film. It is up to the jury to decide, by a vote of guilty or innocent, whether this boy lives or dies. Either they let him go free or they condemn him to death. As the jury files into the room, it is obvious some of them are deeply affected by the weight of their decision while others are clearly convinced their conclusions are obvious. As none of the jurymen are identified by name for most of the movie, only two of them exchanging names at the very end of the film, the only way to refer to them is by their jury number, which is made easier as they sit at the table in this order. Casual chatter before they all convene officially indicates that most of the jury members feel the case is fairly solid, the boy is undeniably guilty of the crime. As the film moves forward, the reasons for this assurance are revealed. First, the boy was known to have
Friday, November 1, 2019
Psychological support for breast cancer women and mastectomy - Essay Example Addie Gilbert, 51, saw the final straw while trying on her favorite red dress whose front was adorned with stylish criss-cross straps, thinking she might never have to wear it again. Following her mastectomy, the heavy prosthesis underneath was clearly visible. She said, Ã¢â¬Å"I was so depressed that I sat on the floor of my bedroom and cut the dress up into little pieces with scissorsÃ¢â¬ (Boughton, 2000). After her mastectomy, she was not only worried about her inability to wear her favorite clothes in the future, but was also troubled by the trauma brought about by the diagnosis of breast cancer every time she saw her reflection and the scar over her chest in the mirror. Gilbert thus decided to have her breast reconstructed. Her breast was molded by taking skin and tissue from her abdomen. Addition of an areola and nipple three months later with an office procedure made her whole again. Different women respond to the surgery of breast cancer in different ways depending upon th eir psychology, self-perception, age, and whether or not the surgery is accompanied by such adjuvant therapeutic procedures as chemotherapy and radiation. Mastectomy can be hard to come to terms with for women like Gilbert, though it is an acceptable alternative for many other patient of breast cancer. Women undergoing surgery for breast cancer commonly experience major regrets because of severe emotional trauma, complications of surgery, lack of postoperative psychological support, complications of reconstruction, phantom pain, and dissatisfaction with the procedureÃ¢â¬â¢s cosmetic outcome. Frost et al. (2000) performed a detailed research to investigate the overall social and psychological well-being and long-term satisfaction in women that have undergone prophylactic mastectomy. The researchers found a 74 per cent reduction in the emotional concern regarding the