Friday, December 27, 2019

The Thousand Days War

The Thousand Days’ War was a Civil War fought in Colombia between the years of 1899 and 1902. The basic conflict behind the war was the conflict between liberals and conservatives, so it was an ideological war as opposed to a regional one, and it divided families and was fought all over the nation. After about 100,000 Colombians had died, both sides called a halt to the fighting. Background By 1899, Colombia had a long tradition of conflict between liberals and conservatives. The fundamental issues were these: the conservatives favored a strong central government, limited voting rights and strong links between church and state. The liberals, on the other hand, favored stronger regional governments, universal voting rights and a division between church and state. The two factions had been at odds since the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1831. Attack of the Liberals In 1898, conservative Manuel Antonio Sanclemente was elected president of Colombia. The liberals were outraged, because they believed that significant election fraud had taken place. Sanclemente, who was well into his eighties, had participated in a conservative overthrow of the government in 1861 and was extremely unpopular among liberals. Because of health problems, Sanclemente’s grip on power was not very firm, and liberal generals plotted a rebellion for October 1899. War Breaks Out The liberal revolt began in Santander Province. The first clash took place when liberal forces tried to take Bucaramanga in November 1899 but were repulsed. A month later, the liberals scored their largest victory of the war when General Rafael Uribe Uribe routed a larger conservative force at the battle of Peralonso. The victory at Peralonso gave the liberals the hope and strength to drag out the conflict for two more years against superior numbers. The Battle of Palonegro Foolishly refusing to press his advantage, liberal General Vargas Santos stalled long enough for the conservatives to recover and send an army after him. They clashed in May 1900 at Palonegro, in Santander Department. The battle was brutal. It lasted approximately two weeks, which meant that by the end decomposing bodies became a factor on both sides. Oppressive heat and lack of medical care made the battleground a living hell as the two armies fought time and again over the same stretch of trenches. When the smoke cleared, there were close to 4,000 dead and the liberal army had broken. Reinforcements Up until this point, the liberals had been getting aid from neighboring Venezuela. The government of Venezuelan President Cipriano Castro had been sending men and weapons to fight on the liberal side. The devastating loss at Palonegro made him halt all support for a time, although a visit from liberal General Rafael Uribe Uribe convinced him to resume sending aid. The End of the War After the rout at Palonegro, the defeat of the liberals was only a question of time. Their armies in tatters, they would rely for the rest of the war on guerrilla tactics. They did manage to secure some victories in present-day Panama, including a small-scale naval battle that saw the gunboat Padilla sink the Chilean ship (â€Å"borrowed† by the conservatives) Lautaro in the harbor of Panama City. These small victories notwithstanding, even reinforcements from Venezuela could not save the liberal cause. After the butchery at Peralonso and Palonegro, the people of Colombia had lost any desire to continue the fighting. Two Treaties Moderate liberals had been trying to bring about a peaceful end to the war for some time. Although their cause was lost, they refused to consider an unconditional surrender: they wanted liberal representation in government as a minimum price for ending hostilities. The conservatives knew how weak the liberal position was and remained firm in their demands. The Treaty of Neerlandia, signed on October 24, 1902, was basically a cease-fire agreement that included the disarming of all liberal forces. The war was formally ended on November 21, 1902, when a second treaty was signed on the deck of the US warship Wisconsin. Results of the War The Thousand Days’ War did nothing to alleviate the long-standing differences between the Liberals and Conservatives, who would again go to war in the 1940’s in the conflict known as La Violencia. Although nominally a conservative victory, there were no real winners, only losers. The losers were the people of Colombia, as thousands of lives were lost and the country was ravaged. As an extra insult, the chaos caused by the war allowed the United States to bring about the independence of Panama, and Colombia lost this valuable territory forever. One Hundred Years of Solitude The Thousand Days’ War is well-known inside of Colombia as an important historical event, but it has been brought to international attention due to an extraordinary novel. Nobel Prize Winner Gabriel Garcà ­a Mà ¡rquez’ 1967 masterpiece One Hundred Years of Solitude covers a century in the life of a fictional Colombian family. One of the most famous characters of this novel is Colonel Aureliano Buendà ­a, who leaves the tiny town of Macondo to fight for years in the Thousand Days’ War (for the record, he fought for the liberals and is thought to have been loosely based on Rafael Uribe Uribe).

Thursday, December 19, 2019

What Value Of The Project Itself Its Spillover Effects On...

Estimated Future State The â€Å"Spillovers† and â€Å"HKSAR valuation† tabs in the attached Excel workbook show how we calculated the value of the project itself, its spillover effects to the HK economy, and the overall net benefit to Hong Kong. We essentially did a traditional discounted cash flow analysis. We had to make assumptions and estimations of the future value of variables such as the HK inflation rate, tourist growth rate, etc. Based on historical data, analyst projections, and market research, these are our best estimates for what the future will hold for the HK economy and our project. To highlight some key calculations from this analysis, the NPV of the project, the NPV of the spillover effects, the NPV of the revenues that the HK†¦show more content†¦These park attendees have other purposes for being in Hong Kong other than visiting HK Disneyland. Due to limited discretionary income, they will spend some of the money that they would have spent in other sectors or at other businesses in the HK economy at HK Disneyland. This is a negative side effect for the economy. We estimated that the crowding out effect would be 10% of per capita spending at the park for local residents and 10% of per day spending for base tourists. In addition, we changed the HK population growth rate to 0%, the rate of inflation to -1% (1% deflation), the tourism growth rate to 3.3%, and the post-2024 cash flow growth rate to -2%. The 3.3% tourism growth rate is the rate recently projected by the Hong Kong Tourist Association for the 2005-2020 period. The 6.48% rate that we used for our best estimate was the historical rate. The 3.3% rate is a reflection of the fact that tourists have lost interest in Hong Kong since the British gave in back to China. Nonetheless, we think that HK Disneyland will result in at least average tourism growth for Hong Kong. Also, we believe that the park probably would shutdown in 2024 in the worst state. Because of this, we did not include ter minal cash flows. We believe the direction and magnitude of these changes in these variables will adequately simulate the worst possible future state of the economy for this project. To highlight some key calculations

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Business Model in the Business-Samples for Students-Myassignment

Question: Importance of Business Model in the Business. Answer: A business model has the nature of logistic which is able to provide data along with evidence that describes how a business would be able to generate and deliver values to the customers. It also form of costs, revenue and profits associated with the business so that value of customers can be delivered. There is a different element of business model to create value for customers and divert payment into profits (Richter, 2013). In core, a business model of the business comprises nothing less in comparison of architecture of organizational and financial of a business. business model cannot be compared with spread sheet or computer model, although business model may well lodged in the plan of business and the statements of the income and cash flow projections. But in a clearly manner, the concept of it refers in the phenomenon to a conceptual, in comparison of financial. Figure 1: elements of business model design Source: (Teece, 2010). Business model is important for every sector; there is no need to determine certain sector for applying it. A good business model is able to gain value proposition that are captivating to customers and able to obtain the structure of advantageous cost and risks. It is able to generate significant value capture through the business that make and delivers products and services. It is required to design the business in an appropriate manner after those implementing e-commercially viable architectures for revenues to the success for an organization. It is most important if business is created at first but along with that it is important for this business to keep the model viable (Cant, 2013). It is required for business to focus on effectiveness of excellent people because they would be able to generate the sustainability and profitability. It has been argued by Teece, (2010), the concept of business model is value creation, value appropriation and innovation. Value creation is most important element of the business model. Value creation consider as major aspect in the business to attain the profit from end user For example, Amazon is a multinational company that is able to provide better services and products to their customers, it sets 14 principles within an organization and whosoever would be unable to follow these principles will be get punished by monetary or non-monetary terms. These unnecessary principles are being the reason of lack of creation that is why Germany is the country that does not prefer a single product from Amazon. Value appropriation is considers in the business in the order to gain profit or margin of the company. Two model strategies, leading strategy and rear guard strategies are being used to describe the value appropriation in the business. Innovation is the part of success of the company; b usiness model innovation is a unique concept which supports business in the term of financial viability. It has been analyzed that there are number of successful business model in all over the world, for instance, Wal-Mart, Apple, Google, Toyota, and Zara and so on. These are the well developed companies that made changes in their business model to gain more reparative position in existing market. There are nine block of business model which defines the strategy without facing any complexity. Figure 2: Canvas of business model Source: (Baden-Fuller Morgan, 2010). Cant, (2013), stated that business model as an activity system work an s the design elements of content, structure and governance. It goes beyond independencies in among activities and notions of the structure of networks. It has three elements in it activity system as content, activity system as governance and activity system as structure. Activity system of business model refers to the selection of number of activities. For instance, Banclombia has initiated activities to design microcredit for those Colombians who do not have the access of banking services. To perform the activities, it is required to business to give proper training from the top management to employees. Activity system structure refers that the interlinked of activities in the business model. Activity system governance refers that will be liable to perform the activities in appropriate manner. Along with them business model as activity system can be categorized in to novelty, lock-in, complementarities and effici ency (Dentchev, et. al., 2016). Business model as cost revenue architecture can involve key partner, activities and different resources of business. The modes as cost revenue architect focus on variable and fixed economy. Customer segment and price contribution is being considered in this business model. It forces the business to earn more profit by controlling all unnecessary expenses and provide the business new opportunities to turn business into annuities (Schaltegger Wagner, 2011). These models will be able to resolve the issues of static and dynamic. Business model is able to have impact of reducing issues on the problems. Number of conceptualization component involves in business model which helps out business to get rid of static as well as dynamic issues (Zhang Wang, 2016). There are various components of conceptualization value stream, logistic stream, internal capability factors, economic growth, market factor, competitive advantage and revenue stream. Along with that there is a conceptualized components such as competitors, technological input, system architecture and network architecture, value proposition, value creating, competitors are elements which are able to design or re-design the business model for the purpose to analyze the issues regarding static and dynamic (Sanchez Ricart, 2010). A business model is able to articulate the data and the logic that support a value proposition not only for customers but also maintain a viable structure of revenues and costs. A good business model will be able to deliver the valuable services to value customers. A business context is considered as the tool which is taken is use for analyzing the environment of working within an organization (Boons Ldeke-Freund, 2013). The choices of business model define the architecture of the business. It can be difficult for the business s to make amendments in established business model. For example, American express and Discover card have experienced to change its hybrid models where they issued cards themselves. It was inappropriate for its competitors which provide only network services, as per technology innovation American express issued credit card. Innovative business model helps out to redesign the models and provide opportunity to generate higher returns to the pioneer until and unle ss their features of novels do not copied (Bharadwaj, El Sawy, Pavlou Venkatraman, 2013). It has been analyzed that there is number of business notions such as value creation, core business, customer, management and addressable market. There is a notion of open innovation which refers that companies relying on internal ideas to make its business advance. Open innovation is the part of notion which depends on the outsiders as the source of views and new ideas to commercialize them. Addressable market is focuses on market segments, face book is the example of it, when marks Zuckerberg launched its business, and he set to have the system of monopoly on customers response and commitment. It is the most important for the business to make changes in business without hurting anyone. Value creation is the example of saving time and efforts of the customers; it comes under the performance indicator of strategic. Inventory management is essential tool for the business for bringing changes in business model because it is important for the business to know about the demand of the cus tomers. Business need to replace the notions of expertise by learns ability and innovations (Breuer Ldeke-Freund, 2014). Figure 3: Steps to gain sustainable business model Source: (Teece, 2010). As per the evolution of the company, opportunities for generating revenue at large scale arise. Manager of the organization should take initiative step as per changes in business model. It has been evaluated that business model is connected with the innovation of technology. It will certainly have impact on the decisions of mangers while decision. There is an example of Google, Amazon and Easy jet which is able to demonstrate that how business get influenced because of changes in business model. Technological innovations definitely have influences on the performance of business in desired market (Itami Nishino, 2010). It has been concluded that business model has crucial role in innovation and sustainable business. Business models make ensure to the customers or investors that they are going to tie up with planned organization. In this report the bas of conceptual is thin, but it suggests the various ways to advance the study regarding model of business. Employing more accurate notions would permit other researchers to better understand about the importance of business model. E-business model archetypes, business model as activity system and business model as cost architecture has been elaborated in this report which will give better understanding for further research. References Baden-Fuller, C. Morgan, M.S. (2010). Business Models as Models . Long Range Planning 43 (2010) 156e171. Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O. A., Pavlou, P. A., Venkatraman, N. V. (2013). Digital business strategy: toward a next generation of insights. Boons, F., Ldeke-Freund, F. (2013). Business models for sustainable innovation: state-of-the-art and steps towards a research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, 45, 9-19. Breuer, H., Ldeke-Freund, F. (2014). Normative innovation for sustainable business models in value networks. Dentchev, N., Baumgartner, R., Dieleman, H., Jhannsdttir, L., Jonker, J., Nyberg, T., ... van Hoof, B. (2016). Embracing the variety of sustainable business models: social entrepreneurship, corporate intrapreneurship, creativity, innovation, and other approaches to sustainability challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production, 113. Itami, H., Nishino, K. (2010). Killing two birds with one stone: profit for now and learning for the future. Long Range Planning, 43(2), 364-369. Richter, M. (2013). Business model innovation for sustainable energy: German utilities and renewable energy. Energy Policy, 62, 1226-1237. Sanchez, P. Ricart, J. E. (2010). Business model Innovation and sources of value creation in low-income markets. European Management Review (2010) 7, 138-154. Schaltegger, S., Wagner, M. (2011). Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions. Business strategy and the environment, 20(4), 222-237. Seville, D., Buxton, A. Vorley, B. (2011). Under what conditions are value chains effective tools for pro-poor development?. Retrieved on 19th April 2017 from: Teece, D. J. (2010). Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation. Long Range Planning, vol 43 2010. Zhang, D., Wang, X. (2016). Investigating the dynamic spillover effects of low-cost airlines on airport airfare through spatio-temporal regression models. Networks and Spatial Economics, 16(3), 821-836.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Teacher Career Special Education Programming

Table of Contents Introduction Situation with Educational Institutions Services and Programs Reference List Introduction The formation of the concept of how the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) moves its efforts towards a goal is not one of the major issues to consider from the perspective of school districts. This act is aimed at proceeding toward a goal or through an activity which is not of primary importance concerning the current situation.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Teacher Career: Special Education Programming specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Educational management is an effort to make sure that special needs of children including obtaining the knowledge by means of learning and instruction are met. Education in the United States is mostly conducted by the public sector while the educational institutions are grouped into different sectors namely: public schools, approved home schools, and the private schools. Situation with Educational Institutions Educational institutions have different administrators and school boards that are elected to manage the education at the local level. These educational institutions are largely referred to as compulsory educational institutions, since they adhere to the education requirements and objectives of the United States educational system. Accordingly to the provision and supervision of the educational system by the public sector, it tends to control and fund tertiary institutions with fund received from the federal, state, and local resources. School curricula, employment of teachers, educational funding, and other educational policies are governed by locally elected school boards who have an authority over school districts. School districts are usually run by independent officials and budgets. However, administrators and teachers should maintain high-quality education by ensuring meaningful curriculum, effectiv e teaching, and necessary supports for each students (Hilliard, 1992, P.10). Educational programs, services, and budgets differ as well as school boards. All of these factors influence the programs school districts offer and the way they deal with children and parents and manage educational curricula. Depending on the population breakdown in the district, there may be many special education programs or only a few. Some administrators believe very firmly that most, if not all, children with disabilities should be mainstreamed in regular education. On the other hand, there are a number of professionals who believe that special programs are important and that children with disabilities, more often than not, should belong in special classes. Educational sector of the United States should be governed in accordance with the equal rights of citizens to acquire knowledge and be treated correspondingly to their physical or/and mental disability. Inherent in the nature of this is the acknowle dgment that the general public does not offer a smooth playing field for all children to start school at the same preliminary procession.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As reported by Tower (2007), a vague idea of the widespread approach to education is marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts with the policy objective of fairness where each person is provided with the learning opportunities, services, and support required to comprehend his/her prospective and reputable principles (p.100). Services and Programs Federal and state statutes for special education have endeavored to bring into balance the privileges of students to acquire knowledge in educational institutions. Special emphasis is given to those who have outstanding skills. However, some people are deprived of their opportunity to get a diploma in terms of their being unable to perform effectively. This problem is based on claims that these people are characterized by as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness, and a general educational system that has set an integrated course of academic studies, programs, and services. Mainstreaming, integration, and inclusion can be conceived of as emergent, dynamic, complex, and adapting concepts applied to special education problem (Ornstein and Lunenburg 1996, 268). Students are screened and referred for special education by means of determining their eligibility for special education whether the child has a particular category of disability. Schools develop an IEP specifying the student’s present levels of performance and how the child’s disability affects his or her involvement and progress in the general curriculum. Using this information, and following federal and state established procedural requirements, school district personnel attempt to match the students needs within the parameters of established special education programs, services, and resources (Cramer, 1996, P.56). Reference List Brown, G. personal communication, October 26, 2010. Casey, A. personal communication, October 26, 2010.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Teacher Career: Special Education Programming specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cramer, S. C., Ellis, W. (Eds.) (1996). Learning disabilities: Lifelong issues. Baltimore: Brokes. Hilliard, A. (1992). The pitfalls and promises of special education practice. Exceptional Children, 59(2), 168-172. Ornstein, A. C., Lunenburg, F. C. (2007). Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Tower, C. C. (2007). Exploring child welfare: a practice perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. This research paper on Teacher Career: Special Education Programming was written and submitted by user Tristen C. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.